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Full text of "Journal of my journey over the mountains"

JOURNAL 



Journey Over the Mountains; 



GEORGE WASHINGTON, 

WHILE SURVEYING FOR LORD THOMAS FAIRFAX, BARON OF CAMERON, 



NORTHERN NECK OF VIRGINIA, 

BEYOND THE BLUE RIDGE, 
IN 

1747-8. 



Copied f torn the Original with Literal Exactness and Edited with Notes 

BY 

J. M. TONER, M. D. 



ALBANY, N. Y. 

JOEL MUNSELL S SONS, PUBLISHERS 
1892 



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



1. Mount Vernon farms, to face page iv 

2. Mount Vernon hills made as early as 1747, 

traced from original, to face page 9 

3. Plan of Major Lawrence Washington s tur 

nip field, traced from original, to face 
page 14 

4. Plan of survey of land known as " Hell Hole," 

traced from original, to face page 24 

5. Mount Vernon river front at mouth of Hunt 

ing creek, traced from original, to face 
page 52 

6. Surveying or measuring land, a study traced 

from original, to face page 56 

7. Lost river, traced from the original, to face 

Page 73 

8. Plat of Francis Jett s land, traced from the 

original, to face page 76 

9. Plat of Elizabeth Washington s land, traced 

from the original, to face page 76 

10. Plat of survey for Richard Barnes, Gent., 

copied from Sparks, to face page 79 



M1689I7 



PREFACE. 



Washington s Journal here given to the public, 
if we except his version of the " Rules of Civility and 
Decent .Behaviour in Company and Conversation," 
is the earliest literary effort of this, the most admira 
ble character in all history. The editor has long 
been engaged in collecting accurate copies of all the 
obtainable writings of this great man. Wherever it 
has been found practicable to examine and critically 
compare even his generally accepted writings with 
the originals, it has been, or will be done to secure a 
copy of exact and verified conformity, in every par 
ticular, with the text as it left the hand of the writer. 

It is a well-known fact that editors have taken 
great liberties with Washington s writings, not for 
the purpose of falsifying history, or aspersing his 
character, but from a variety of reasons, often to sup 
press caustic expressions, or to substitute a more 
euphonious word to give to his sentences a fine, rhe 
torical finish. Such editorial dressing, even where 
the motive is well intended, is vicious in principle 
and liable to abuse ; and, in the case of Washington s 
writings, is neither justifiable nor desirable. The 
time has come when the people want to know inti 
mately and without glamour or false coloring, the 
father of his country as he actually lived and labored, 



6 Preface. 

and to possess his writings, just as he left them, on 
every subject which engaged his attention. It is the 
purpose of the editor to prepare a complete collection 
of all the writings of George Washington, from his 
youth to the close of his eventful life, with that 
literal exactness as to text which can only be assured 
by the careful efforts of an experienced copyist and 
expert proof reader having access to and comparing 
in every possible case the copies with the originals. 
This initial Diary of Washington opens with his six 
teenth year, and plainly shows the energy and the 
maturity of his judgment, and his capability to dis 
charge even then important trusts with efficiency. 

Forthcoming volumes will give, in chronological 
order, his co-operation in the march of events on this 
continent, and his life and opinions as seen through 
the writings he left. This volume must be viewed as 
the work of a youth, making a few, brief and hurried 
memoranda while in the depths of the forest and in 
tended for no eye but his own. The time is not far 
distant when an edition of Washington s more im 
portant papers will be called for in facsimile by some 
one of the photogravure processes now available for 
such purposes, because of the unquestionable fidelity 
to the original it secures and which is approximately 
arrived at in this publication. 

This is the first systematic attempt to produce the 
writings of Washington with literal exactness as to 
abbreviations, the use of capitals, punctuation, spell 
ing, etc. It is possible that the plan pursued may 



Preface. 7 

not, at first, meet with an unqualified commendation 
from the public. But if the editor does not much 
mistake the desire of students, the admirers of 
Washington and the demand of historians, this 
method, if faithfully executed, must produce the pre 
ferred edition of his writings. 

A few miscellaneous pieces in Washington s youth 
ful handwriting are preserved in this Journal, and are 
here printed with the same effort for literal accuracy 
which has been bestowed upon the Journal itself, 
and upon his field notes of land surveys. 




// 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS journal of George Washington, now for the 
first time printed entire and with literal exact 
ness, was begun, as shown by the date in the opening 
lines, when he was but one month over sixteen years of 
age. It is his own daily record of observations during 
his first remunerated employment. His proficiency 
as a surveyor, and his fortitude in encountering the 
hardships of the forest in this expedition were, consid 
ering his age, truly remarkable. With him the begin 
ning determined the end. Biographers have made us 
acquainted with the character of his worthy parents, 
and with the sturdy stock from which they were de 
scended. It does seem as though Providence called 
our Washington into being, and educated him in the 
western world just at the time when a great leader 
was wanted to direct a revolution, and to found on 
this continent a new and a free, English-speaking 
nation. Every factor, whether of lineage or. culture, 
in the admirably balanced character of Washington, 
as well as every aspiration of his heart, from his 
cradle to his grave, is of high interest to the world- 
Although deprived of a father s care at the age of 
2 



io Introduction. 

eleven years, he was, however, especially blessed in 
having such a mother as the noble Mary Washington, 
who conscientiously discharged her sacred duty as his 
guardian, counselor and friend. Hence filial rever 
ence grew with his growth and strengthened with his 
maturing years into fixed principles, making him 
throughout all his eventful life loyal to every virtue 
and heroic in every trust. 

When George Washington set out on the enter 
prise herein narrated, he was just out of school, where 
he had received the best education the neighborhood 
could supply, supplemented with good private in 
struction. We may well believe that his mother and 
his brothers then supposed that George had attained 
an age and proficiency when he should either go to 
college to acquire a higher education, or embark 
speedily in some respectable calling ; and we may 
further conclude that this precocious youth was eager 
to take part in the affairs of life, and deferentially 
announced his preference for the latter course. Pos 
sibly he was influenced in this selection by his great 
admiration for his half-brother, Major Lawrence 
Washington, who was actively and prosperously 
engaged in various business enterprises, who made 
much of George, and had him visit Mount Vernon 
whenever it was practicable. 

George Washington s aptitude for mathematics 
early attracted the attention of his teachers, and his 
beautifully kept copy-books, which are still preserved, 
attest his unusual ability in mathematical demonstra- 



Introduction. 1 1 

tion and diagrams. Mr. Williams, the principal of 
the Academy in Westmoreland county, Va., where 
young Washington was, to give a practical value to 
this mathematical talent, had added surveying and 
navigation to his other studies ; and these were soon 
mastered by this bright pupil. Land surveying was 
then a profitable and genteel pursuit in the colonies, 
and it comported well with Washington s tastes and 
inclinations. While visiting his brother at Mount 
Vernon, he had repeatedly amused himself and enter 
tained guests of the house by surveying, in their 
presence, the garden, or a field, and rapidly drawing 
plats of them as an exercise. A few maps of such 
early surveys have been preserved. One of them, of 
Lawrence Washington s turnip field, bearing date 27 
Feb., 1747-8, is reproduced in fac-simile in this publi 
cation. The others are without date, but are of about 
the same period ; although one, namely that of " Hell 
Hole," a part of the Mount Vernon estate, and fre 
quently mentioned in Washington s later diaries, may 
have been an earlier production. A fac-simile of it 
may also be found in this work. 

Washington s efficiency and enthusiasm as a sur 
veyor were observed and admired not only by his 
friend and companion, George William Fairfax, but 
also by the Hon. Wm. Fairfax and by Lord Fairfax, 
who were constantly employing surveyors to lay off 
lands for sale in the latter s large domain known as 
"The Northern Neck" of Virginia. During the 
early spring of 1 748 the demands for surveys were 



1 2 Introduction. 

more than usually pressing by actual settlers in the 
Shenandoah valley. Lord Fairfax engaged the youth, 
George Washington, to proceed with George William 
Fairfax, his agent, as recorded in this journal, to exe 
cute certain commissions and meet a pressing demand. 
His surveys and reports gave entire satisfaction and 
led to his steady employment by his titled patron, 
principally as a director of his lordship s land office 
and of the surveys, preparatory to sale. Washington 
filled this position for about three years, when he was 
called upon to accompany his brother Lawrence, who, 
from failing health, was constrained, in the fall of 
1751, to visit the West Indies in the hope of finding 
relief. 

The journal kept by George Washington during his 
visit to Barbadoes in company with his brother, will 
be given in a separate work soon to be issued in its 
chronological order by the editor. The journal here 
presented to the public is, in the main, confined to 
Washington s daily entries, memoranda and field notes 
of surveys of land situated between the Blue Ridge 
and the Alleghany mountains. 

Unfortunately the records of his surveys are not 
consecutive, and it is quite evident that they represent 
but a part, and probably but a small part, of the land 
surveyed by Washington for Lord Fairfax and others. 
The notes of surveys here published are all that can 
be found or that are now known to exist. It is to be 
hoped, however, that if other books of his field notes 
of surveys have escaped destruction, they may yet be 



Introduction. 1 3 

discovered. This hope is encouraged from the fact 
that the laws of the colony required surveyors, upon 
retiring from their official stations as county survey 
ors, to deposit their field books of notes of surveys 
with the records of the county. How far this law was 
complied with, the editor is unable to say. It is a 
mistake, however, to infer that Washington was con 
stantly employed in actually running lines and taking 
field notes. He was largely charged with the super 
vision of Lord Fairfax s land office, and the records 
thereto belonging, and was his principal adviser in 
his land surveys, directing the men employed in the 
field work. 

This journal, with its memoranda and surveys, 
makes a valuable addition to our knowledge of the 
life and employments of Washington in his youth. 
Here are also preserved the names of nearly three 
hundred of the early settlers and first land owners in 
the great valley of Virginia, for whom Washington 
made surveys, or who assisted him in this business. 

It was a cherished hope of the editor that he might 
be able to give, in notes, brief sketches of the pioneers 
in the valley here named, through the assistance of 
their descendants, who, in many instances, reside upon 
lands surveyed by Washington for their ancestors. 
In this, however, he has been disappointed. 

The journal, memoranda and surveys found in 
these books have all been copied with literal exact 
ness and are here printed just as they were recorded 
by the hand of their author. This literalness is ad- 



1 4 Introduction. 

hered to in the interest of truth and for the benefit 
of earnest students of history unable to consult per 
sonally the originals. Washington requires no apol 
ogy for any apparent want of style or other marks of 
hasty composition in this journal. It was written in 
the nature of a memorandum intended for himself 
alone. His thoughts, even in these youthful produc 
tions, flow easily and in an orderly and consecutive 
manner. His sentences are never involved or obscure, 
and his observations are always apt and instructive ; 
and, although a youth in years when this journal was 
written, he was dealing ably with important interests, 
and deporting himself in a manly manner, and asso 
ciating on terms of intimacy with the foremost men of 
the day. He seems to have had no idle boy life, but 
was a man with manly instincts and ambitions from 
his youth. Time and accidents are slowly, but effect 
ually, destroying the precious original manuscripts, 
so that a literal and authentic copy is a great desid 
eratum. No liberty whatever is taken by the editor 
with the text as recorded by Washington. The 
notes which are added, it is hoped, may prove of 
interest. J. M. T. 





/ 



JOURNAL, 



A Journal of my Journey over the Mountains be 
gan Fryday the n th of March 1747-8.* 

Fryday March i i th 1 747-8. Began my Journey 2 in 
Company with George Fairfax, Esqr. ; 3 we travell d 
this day 40 Miles to M r George Neavels 4 in Prince 
William County. 5 

Double dating of the year, as is done here, was an old cus 
tom observed between January 1st and the 25th of March. 
For all other portions of the year a single date was used. Al 
though January 1st had been generally accepted as the begin 
ning of the historical year in Christian countries, yet March 
25th was held by some as the beginning of the civil or legal 
year. The Gregorian chronology or new style had not, at the 
time this journal was written, been adopted by England, and, 
indeed, was not until September 2nd, 1752. 

2 The party on this expedition set out from " Belvoir," the 
home and plantation of the Hon. William Fairfax, described 
by General Washington as " within full view of Mount Yernon, 
separated by water only, is one of the most beautiful seats on 
the river." (Letter to John Sinclair, 11 December, 1796.) It 
was founded by William Fairfax, cousin and agent to Lord 
Thomas Fairfax, and was his residence until his death in 1757. 
The estate then passed to his eldest son, George William Fair 
fax, also one of Lord Fairfax s agents, and was his residence 
until July, 1773, when, accompanied by his wife, he went to 
England to attend to some property he had inherited there. 
Washington, his friend and neighbor, consented to act as his 
agent during his absence, which, at the time, neither anticipated 
would be of long continuance. 



i 6 Journal. 

"Law s delay" and business interests making it important 
for Mr. Fairfax to remain in England, he directed Washington 
to dispose of his stock, farm fixtures and household effects at 
public sale. After due advertisement, this was done August 
15, 1774. A second sale at " Belvoir" took place December 
5, 177*. 

The following bill of household effects bought at this first 
sale at Belvoir by George Washington has* been preserved 
among his private papers and was in the possession of one of bis 
inheritors, Lawrence Washington, in January 1891. The bill 
in the auctioneer s handwriting was folded and endorsed in 
Washington s known hand: " Articles bought bv G Washing 
ton at Col Fairfax s Sale 15 August 1774." 

u Inventory of House Furnishings bought by Col George 
Washington at Col Fairfax s Sale at Belvoir 15 August 1774. 

s. d. 

Gilbert Simpson s 5 Bott. or Pickle Pots 7 6 

2 Potts from Lawson Parker do do 2 

6 Pickle Potts different sizes 4 6 

2 Doz. mountain wine 1 4 

4 Chariot Glasses frames 12 6 

Irons for a boat canopy with tiller 12 6 

12 Pewter Water Plates 1 6 

1 Mahogany Shaving Desk 4 

1 Settee-bed and furnature 13 

4 Mahog y chairs 4 

1 Chamber Carpet 1 1 

1 Oval Glass with guilt frame in the Green room. . 4 5 

1 Mahog y chest and drawers in M rs Fx chamber. . 12 10 

1 Mahog y Side Board 12 5 

1 Mahog y Cistern & stand 4 

1 Mahog y voider a dish tray & a knife tray 1 10 

1 Japan Bread tray 7 

12 Chairs & 3 window curtains from y e dining room. 31 

1 Looking glass & Guilt Frame 13 5 

2 Candlesticks & a bust of the Imortal Shakespere. . 1 6 

3 floor carpets in the gent s room 3 5 

1 Large carpet 11 

1 Mahog y wash Desk bottle &c 1 2 6 



Journal. 1 7 

s. d. 

1 Mahog y Close Stool part broke. 1 10 

2 Matrasses 4 10 

1 Pair andirons, tongues, fender & shovel 310 

1 Pair do " " " " 3 17 6 

1 Pair do u " " 1 IT 6 

1 Pair Dogirons in Great Kitchen 3 

1 Pot Kache " " " 4 

A Roasting Fork 2 6 

A Plate Basket 3 

1 Mahog y Spider make tea table 1 11 

1 Old Skreen 10 

1 Carpet 2 15 

1 Pair Bellows & Brush 11 

2 Window Curtins 2 

1 Large Marble Morter 1 1 

1 Pot Kache in the cellar ... 1 7 6 

2 Mahog y Card Tables 4 

A bed a pair of blankets & 19 quilts or coverlets Pil 
lows Bolsters &c 1 Mahog y card Table for Col Lee 11 



169.12.6 

The following admirable description of the estate is taken 
from an advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette of Phila 
delphia, October 19, 1774: 

" To BE RENTED FROM YEAR TO YEAR, OR FOR A TERM OF 

"YEARS, Belvoir, the beautiful seat of the Honorable Geo. 
" W. Fairfax, Esq., upon the Potomac river, in Fairfax county, 
" about 14 miles below Alexandria. 

" The mansion is of brick, two stories high, with four con- 
" venient rooms, and a large passage on the lower floor ; five 
" rooms and a large passage on the second ; servants hall and 
"cellar below; convenient to it are offices, stables and coach- 
" house ; adjacent is a large and well furnished garden stored 
" with a great variety of fruits, all in good order. 

" Appertaining to the tract on which these houses stand and 
" which contains near 2,000 acres (surrounded in a manner by 
"navigable water), are several valuable fisheries and a good deal 
" of clear land in different parts which may be let all together 
" or separately as shall be found most convenient. 
3 



1 8 JoiirnaL 

" The terms may be known of Colonel Washington who iives 
"near the premises, or of me in Berkeley county. 

" FKANCIS WILLIS, Junior." 

The estate was leased to the Rev. Andrew Morton fora term 
of seven ye.irs. Unfortunately the mansion was destroyed by 
tire only a few years later. The owner s long absence, and the 
fact that then 1 was no house to invite a careful tenant, together 
with the excitement and derangement of business incident to 
the war for independence, caused the estate rapidly to depre 
ciate in value. Early in 1775 Washington relinquished the 
agency of George \V. Fairfax s business in America, as his time 
was fully taken up in directing the momentous affairs of the 
Revolution. 

3 George William Fairfax, eldest son of the Hon. William 
Fairfax, of " Belvoir," Va., was born in Nassau, Xevv Provi 
dence, West Indies, in 1724. His father having been appointed 
to the custom house in Salem, Massachusetts, he was taken to 
that to\vn and resided there until 1734, about which time his 
father accepted the agency of Lord Fairfax s lands in Virginia, 
and removed to that province. For a time lie resided in West 
moreland county, Va,, but after a couple of years he settled 
upon and developed the " Belvoir" estate on the Potomac river. 
George William Fairfax was educated in England, and coming 
to his majority settled at "Belvoir," and married Sarah, 
daughter of Col. Wilson Gary, of Hampton, Va., who some 
writers, on rather apocryphal testimony, endeavor to show was 
an object of Washington s ardent devotion when a mere youth. 
The same compliment has also been claimed for her sister Mary, 
who married Edward Ambler, and for other belles of that 
period in Virginia, as well as in some of the other colonies. 
George W. Fairfax, after his marriage, resided part of the time 
at "Belvoir," and part at " Green way Court," as agent of Lord 
Fairfax, in the vicinity of which he owned and cultivated 
lands. On his father s death in 1757 he inherited "Belvoir," 
where he continued to reside until the summer of 1773, when, 
accompanied by his wife, he went to England to look after 
some property he had inherited there. The proprietors of 
" Belvoir" and " Mount Vernon " and their families were al 
ways on the most friendly terms, as the letters extant of each 
attest, and Washington s diaries fully confirm. Mr. Fairfax 



Journal. 1 9 

favored the early protests by the colonies and petitions to the 
king in the interests of the colonies, but opposed measures look 
ing to forcible resistance. Washington consented to act as his 
agent while he was absent, presuming his stay in England would 
be of short duration. But a complication of matters detained 
him abroad so that he instructed his agent to sell off his stock 
at u Belvoir" and lease the property. A sale was accordingly 
held on the estate in August, 1774, which continued two days. 
A second and further sale was held in December the same 
year. The property was leased in 1774 for seven years, but 
shortly after this the mansion house was burned down and never 
rebuilt. During the Revolutionary war some of Mr. Fairfax s 
property in Fairfax county was escheated to the state. His loss 
of income from America led him to limit his expense, he there 
fore removed from Yorkshire to Bath and lived in a modest 
way, dividing generously, from his limited means, with the 
American prisoners of war held in England. He had no chil 
dren. A friendly correspondence was kept up between him 
and Washington to the close of his life. He was urged to re 
turn to America, but his mansion at "Belvoir" having been de 
stroyed by fire he kept putting it off and never returned. He 
left "Belvoir" and some other landed property to Ferdinand, 
son of his half-brother, Rev. Bryan Fairfax, and died at Bath in 
England. April 3, 1787, and was buried in Wirthlington church. 
His will appointed George Washington as one of his executors. 
His wife survived him until 1812. Her remains were placed 
by the side of her husband s. 

4 George Neville, Esq., was among the earliest planters to 
settle in the western part of Prince William county, Va. As 
early as, or before 1730. he selected a large body of desirable 
land lying on the main road by way of Ashby s Gap from 
Fredericksburg to Winchester. Here his residence was beauti 
fully situated on high, healthy and productive land near the 
head springs of Bull Run, a> tributary of the Occoquan river, 
and 34 miles from Fredericksburg, the head of tide water on 
the Rappahannock river. Squire Neville, the proprietor of this 
fine estate, as he was usually called, was a man of steady and 
industrious habits, possessed a fine constitution, gentle in his 
manners, and cultured in his tastes, enterprising and thrifty, 
with a genius for overcoming such difficulties as always beset 



2O Journal. 

the path of the pioneer in a new country. As the lands to the 
west of him, and particularly those in the Shenandoah valley 
beyond the Blue Ridge, began to attract settlers the travel on 
the road past his house became considerable, and as a matter of 
accommodation to the public he opened an ordinary and kept 
a store for general merchandizing. Neville s Ordinary was a 
land mark, and is to be found on Fry and Jefferson s Map of 
Virginia, as well as on Governor Pownall s and other early maps 
of Virginia. In 1750 Washington surveyed for Mr. Neville 
400 acres of land. Bv marriage George Neville was related to 
the Fairfax family of Virginia. His wife, Ann Burroughs, was 
a cousin to Lord Thomas Fairfax of " Green way Court," the pro 
prietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia. Squire Neville and 
his wife were blessed with a numerous family of healthy sons 
and daughters, who inherited the sturdy virtues of their parents, 
and who founded families for themselves, and whose descen 
dants are to be found throughout the southern and western 
states. Joseph Neville, son of Geerge, was a prosperous 
planter in the western part of Prince William county, Va., in 
1760. (See Washington s Diary.) He served as a colonel in the 
Revolution, was one of the commissioners for running the 
boundary line between Pennsylvania and Virginia, and was a 
member of Congress 1793-5 ; died in Hardy county, Va., 1819. 
John Neville, another son, was colonel of the 4th Virginia 
regiment in the Revolution, and brigadier-general in the Penn 
sylvania militia at the close of the war. He was born in Vir 
ginia 26 July, 1731. From his youth he had a fondness for 
military affairs and served in the Braddock expedition, and also 
in the Dunmore Indian w r ar. He and his brothers were early 
and life-long friends of General Washington, the acquaintance 
beginning when they were youths. At an early date John 
Neville took up considerable tracts of land in Frederick and 
Augusta counties, Va. He resided for some years in the 
Shenandoah valley, being at one time sheriff of Frederick 
county. He also acquired large tracts of land on Cbartier s 
creek in Pennsylvania, and had built himself a house prepara 
tory to taking up his residence there, when the Revolutionary 
war began, in which he took an active and honorable part. 
This event postponed, for some years, his removal with his 
family to Pennsylvania. On the 24th August, 1754, he was 
united in marriage to Winifred Oldham, by whom he had two 



Journal* 2 1 

children, a son and a daughter, Presley and Amelia. Presley 
Neville married Nancy, daughter of General Daniel Morgan, 
and they became the progenitors of the large and influential 
family of Nevilles of Pittsburg, Pa. Colonel Presley Neville, 
as he was called, served in the "Revolution for three years on 
the staff of General Lafayette. Amelia Neville married Major 
Isaac Craig of the Revolution, and they became the founders 
of the well known and esteemed family of Craigs of Pittsburg. 
Eaglds Pennsylvania Genealogies. 

5 Prince William county, Ya., formed in 1780 from Stafford 
and King George counties, embraced territory extending from 
the Potomac river on the east to the summit of the Blue Ridge 
on the west ; it was divided from Loudoun county by the Oc- 
coquan and Bull Run streams. Prior to 1822 the county seat 
was at Dumfries, but at that date it was removed to Brentville. 

Saturday March 12 th this Morning M r James Genn 
y e surveyor 6 came to us, we travel d over y e Blue 
Ridge 7 to Cap 1 Ashbys 8 on Shannondoah River, 9 
Nothing remarkable happen d. 

6 James Genn, a licensed surveyor in Virginia, much em 
ployed by Lord Fairfax, and frequently mentioned by Wash 
ington, and whose name often appears signed to surveys in 
which the latter was engaged, as the surveyor or director, is 
doubtless the person to whom reference is here made. 

7 Blue Ridge the most easterly of the mountain ranges of 
the United States. The name properly restricted however, ap 
plies especially to that portion of the Appalachian range south 
of the Potomac river. In some parts of Pennsylvania it is 
known as Kittatinny and at some places in Maryland as South 
Mountain. It attains its greatest altitude in Virginia at the 
Peaks of Otter, which are about 4,000 feet above sea level. 

8 Capt. Ashby resided on the Shenandoah river above Bur- 
well s island and the great bend of that stream, at which place 
he maintained a ferry and kept a house of entertainment. It 
was on the natural line by which travel came from the tide 
water region of Virginia, through a gap in the Blue Ridge and 
across the Shenandoah valley to the country beyond. Being a 



22 Journal. 

man of great courage and usefulness, lie was deservedly popu 
lar among the early settlers, and his name was given not only 
to his ordinary but also to the gap and to the ferry. There 
was, too, a Fort Ash by on Patterson creek, near the town of 
Frankfort. There are numerous families bearing the name of 
Ashby throughout the southern and western states, who are 
probably descendants of this famous pioneer. General Turner 
W. Ashbv, an officer of distinction in the Confederate army, is 
presumably of this family. The name still attaches to the gap 
in the mountains, but it has been superseded at the old ferry. 

Sheuandoah river this is the largest tributary of the Po 
tomac. The name is of Indian origin, and in the aboriginal 
language is said to signify u the daughter of the stars." Ker- 
cheval, in his History of the Valley of Virginia, says the name 
was first written Gerando, then Sherandoch, and now we have 
Shenandoah. The river has its head in Augusta county near 
the divide where the head-waters of the James river take their 
rise. The Shenandoah flows for about 170 miles through a 
broad valley over a limestone bed between the North mountain 
on the one side and the Blue Ridge on the other, to the Poto 
mac river at Harper s Ferry. This valley was the theater of 
many important military operations during the late war. The 
name of Sherando is perpetuated in the name of a post-office in 
Augusta county 011 the head- waters of the Shenandoah. 

Sunday March 13 Rode to his Lordships Quarter 10 
about 4 Miles higher up y River we went through 
most beautiful Groves of Sugar Trees & spent y best 
part of y Day in admiring y e Trees & richness of y e 
Land. 

10 Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord and Baron of Cameron, born in 
England in 1691, died at his residence " Green way Court," 
Frederick county, Virginia, on the 12th of December, 1781. 
His remains were interred within the Episcopal church of Win 
chester, Va. His residence and other improvements were fa 
miliarly called "Quarters" and "Hunting Lodge," chiefly be 
cause he had in contemplation the erection of a commodious 
mansion. Lord Fairfax was the son of Thomas, 5th Lord Fair- 



Journal. 23 

fax and his wife Catherine, daughter of Lord Culpeper, once 
governor of Virginia. He was educated at Oxford and after 
ward held a commission in the British army. Me was a fine 
scholar, and is said to have been a contributor to The Spectato/ 1 . 
He succeeded to his father s title and to his mother s extensive 
landed estate known as the " Northern Neck of Virginia," ly 
ing between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers and esti 
mated at 5,700,000 acres. For some years after coming into 
possession of this property it was left in the hands of agents. 
He finally employed his cousin, the Hon. William Fairfax, son 
of Henry and Anne (Harrison) Fairfax, as his agent in the 
management of his lands. About 1739 Lord Fairfax first 
visited his estate in America. For a year he devoted himself 
to becoming thoroughly acquainted with his possessions and 
then returned to England. Four years later, in 1745, he re 
turned to this country and for a time made his home at " Bel- 
voir," the seat of his relative and agent. 

A branch office for the sale of lands in the valley of Virginia, 
had been opened in Frederick county in 1742. The main office 
and records, however, were not removed from " Belvoir" until 
1761. 

Lord Fairfax built for himself a stone lodge with quarters 
for his servants, reserving around it a manor of 10,000 acres 
which lie called u Greenway Court." The lodge was about 
twelve miles south-east of Winchester, at which place he pur 
posed to build a castle, but this was never erected. His lodge 
was, however, sufficiently spacious for him to live in comfort 
ably, and exercise a generous hospitality. He possessed a 
good library and was frequently visited by men of note whom 
he entertained in an elegant manner. He was fond of the 
chase and took an active interest in the management of his 
estate, as well as in the affairs of the colony, as his letters fully 
prove. He identified himself with the people as far as was 
practicable, and was deservedly popular. He served as lieu 
tenant of Frederick county in the militia organizations ; pre 
sided as one of the judges in the county courts at Winchester, 
and was an overseer of the public roads. 

He met at "Belvoir," George Washington, when a youth, 
and, pleased with his energy and talents, employed him to 
survey lands beyond the Blue Ridge, which were to be sold. 
This was Washington s first remunerated employment. The 



24 Journal. 

acquaintance thus begun, ripened into a friendship that was 
cherished by both through life. 

Although a frank loyalist, his age and prudence in refraining 
from all participation in the Revolutionary struggle, protected 
him from being interfered with either by the government or 
by his neighbors. He died at the age of ninety-three, before 
peace was restored. His barony and its prerogatives, according 
to English law, descended, in the absence of a son, to his eldest 
brother, Robert, who thus became 7th Lord Fairfax. The 
latter died in Leeds Castle, England, 1791, without a son. 
The baronial title then fell to the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, of 
" Towlston Hall," Fairfax county, "Va., who died 7 August, 
1802. " The great landed estates with their entails were, how 
ever, in effect confiscated by the success of the Revolution. 
The Legislature of Virginia in 1785 passed an act in relation to 
the " Northern Neck" to the following effect. "And be it 
further enacted, that the land holders within the said district 
of the Northern Neck shall be for ever hereafter exhonorated 
and discharged from composition and quit rents, any laws, cus 
toms or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding." Revised Code 
of the Laws of Virginia, vol. 1, p. 351, 2, 3. " Greenway Court " 
was devised by his lordship to his nephew, Rev. Denny Martin, 
residing in England, on condition of his obtaining the consent of 
Parliament to change his name to Fairfax. This was done, and 
he was afterward known as " Denny, Lord Fairfax." Like his 
uncle, he left no children and therefore bequeathed the estate to 
two maiden sisters in England. The legatees of the Fairfax 
estate sold their interest to Chief Justice John Marshall, 
Raleigh Colston, Esq. and General Henry Lee. They divided 
it up and sold it out in small farms, and quieted the titles. It 
is believed that no part of this vast body of Fairfax land is now 
held by any member of the family. Sparks, Drake and 
others. 

Monday 14 th We sent our Baggage to Cap 1 Hites 11 
(near Frederick Town) 12 went ourselves down y e River 
about 1 6 Miles to Cap 1 Isaac Penningtons (the Land 
exceeding Rich & Fertile all y e way produces 
abundance of Grain Hemp Tobacco &c a ) in order 



Journal. 25 

to Lay of some Lands on Gates Marsh & Long 
Marsh. 13 

11 Capt. Joist Hite came to Virginia from Pennsylvania in 
1732 with his family, settled on the Opequan creek about five 
miles south of the town of Winchester. The year before he 
had bought from John and Isaac Yan Meter a warrant for 
nearly 40,000 acres of land in the Shenandoah valley which 
they had obtained from Governor Gooch of Virginia in 1730. 
Capt. Hite brought with him from Pennsylvania sixteen 
families, all of whom settled in the same vicinity on fine arable 
ground. They were all judges of good lands and devoted to 
agriculture. The descendants of Hite are quite numerous 
throughout the southern and south-western states, and many 
farms in the valley are still held under titles derived from him. 
Kercheval says, Joist Hite built a stone house on the Opec- 
quan shortly after his coming to the valley. It is still standing 
and has a very ancient appearance though there are no discov 
erable marks to fix the date. On the wall plate of a frame 
barn, however, built by Hite, the figures " 1747 " are plainly 
marked and can still be read. 

12 Frederick Town," properly Winchester, is the capital of 
Frederick county, Va. The latter was formed out of Orange 
county by Act of Assembly of Virginia in 1738, at the same 
time that Augusta county was formed. The choice of this site 
for the capital of the county was determined by the simple fact 
that a few hardy, adventurous Indian traders, as early as 1732 
or even before that date, had built themselves cabins at this 
point known as the " Big Shawane Springs." These settlers 
gradually attracted others until a village was developed. This 
spring or one near it, an example of the great springs which are 
to be found in most limestone regions, furnishes the town of 
Winchester, to the present time, with an abundant supply of 
pure potable water. The site of the town was, all things consid 
ered, well chosen, in a fertile region and on the line of travel, 
whether across the valley to the Alleghany mountains and the 
waters of the Ohio river beyond, or along the great valley of 
the Shenandoah. James Wood was the projector of the town 
of Winchester, which was incorporated in 1752 by the Assem 
bly of Virginia. However, twenty- six lots had been laid out 

4 



26 Journal. 

and sold by James Wood prior to this. Lord Fairfax 
shortly after this date made an addition to the town, and do 
nated the ground for an Episcopal church. Frederick county 
early took measures to give protection to its settlers by building 
forts, making roads and establishing ferries. Its productive soil 
at the same time bountifully rewarded the husbandman for his 
labor. As the Frederick county courts were held at Winches 
ter, the people adopted the southern habit of calling the place 
where the courts met by the name of the county, thus it was 
frequently spoken of as Frederick Town and is so designated 
in several of the early maps. Fort Loudoun was erected here 
by direction of the Assembly of Virginia in 1756, under the 
immediate supervision of Major Washington. 

13 Gate s marsh and Long marsh these are names of small 
streams which flow from the foot hill of North mountain to 
the Shenandoah river and have along their course considerable 
meadow or marshy land. Long marsh is of sufficient import 
ance to be named upon the maps of Virginia. 

Tuesday 15 th We set out early with Intent to Run 
round y e s d Land but being taken in a Rain & it In 
creasing very fast obliged us to return, it clearing about 
one oClock & our time being too Precious to Loose 
we a second time ventured out & Worked hard till 
Night & then return d to Penningtons we got our 
Suppers & was Lighted into a Room & I not being 
so good a Woodsman as y e rest of my Company 
striped myself very orderly & went in to y e Bed as 
they called it when to my Surprize I found it to be 
nothing but a Little Straw Matted together without 
Sheets or any thing else but only one thread Bear 
blanket with double its Weight of Vermin such as 
Lice Fleas &c 14 I was glad to get up (as soon as y 

14 For comments on fleas and other vermin see note 4. 
Washington s " Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour," p. 14, 



Journal. 2 7 

Washington s association with frontiersmen in their primitive 
cabins, which the position of a surveyor in the then almost 
unbroken forest necessitated, was to him a new and peculiar 
experience. His observations and reflections of the first few 
days are recorded with a naivete which is truly charming. 

Light was carried from us) I put on my Cloths & 
Lays as my Companions. Had we not have been very 
tired I am sure we should not have slep d much that 
night I made a Promise not to Sleep so from that 
time forward chusing rather to sleep in y. open Air 
before a fire as will appear hereafter. 

March y. 15 th 1747-8 Survey d for George Fairfax 
Esqr. a Tract of Land lying on Cates Marsh and Long 
Marsh Begining at three Red Oaks Fx on a Ridge 
the N Side a Spring Branch being corner to y e 623 
Acre Tract & Extending thence N 30 E l 436 poles to 
a Large Hickory and Red Oak Fx near John Cozines 
house thence N 60 W l 90 Poles to a Large White Oak 
Fx thence N 7 E t 365 poles to Long Marsh 420 poles 
to 2 Red Oaks and W: Oak in a Poyson d field 15 by a 

15 This probably has reference to some pernicious weeds un 
favorable to tillage and injurious to grazing animals, as St. 
John s wort. Farmers believe that this, and certain other 
noxious weeds which occasionally invade pasture fields, cause 
sore mouths and legs in horses and horned cattle and affect the 
milk of cows grazing where it grows. 

Road thence N 65 W fc 134 Poles to a W: Oak by 
y e s d Marsh thence crossing y e Marsh S 20 W fc 126 
poles to another Branch: of Long Marsh 218 poles to 
a Red Oak Fx thence N 80 W fc 558 po: to a Large 
Red Oak & White Oak Fx in a Valley thence S 



28 Journal. 

25 W l 144 poles to a Black Walnut in a Poysond 
Field by a Lime stone Rock thence S 33-^ E l 96 to 
a White Oak thence S 20 E 1 316 po. to three Red 
Oaks in a Bottom in W m Johnstones line thence with 
Johnstones S 80 E l 30 po to a Double Hickory Coll 
Blackburns corner 114 po to 3 Hickorys Johnstones 
corner & corner to y afores d 623 Acre Tract thence 
along y e lines thereof East 280 poles to 3 Red Oaks 
finally along another of the lines thereof S 15 E l 262 
po. to y e beginning 

HENRY ASHBY 



r^ i Chainmen. 

RICHARD TAYLOR 

ROBERT ASHBY Marker. 
W M LINDSY Pilot. 

Wednesday i6 th We set out early & finish d about 
one oClock & then Travell d up to Frederick Town 
where our Baggage came to us we cleaned ourselves 
(to get Rid of y. Game 16 we had catched y. Night 
before) & took a Review of y. Town & thence re- 
turn d to our Lodgings where we had a good Dinner 
prepar d for us Wine & Rum Punch 17 in Plenty & a 

16 This facetious term " game," referring to his misfortune 
the first night lie lodged in the valley, lias a touch of humor in 
it; and while it is true that Washington was not given to pun 
ning or indulging in witticisms, he was not deficient in imagin 
ation or unappreciative of the exercise of this talent on suitable 
occasions by others. He knew that good humor minimized 
most of the petty annoyances of life. 

17 The office and art of the surveyor were held in high esteem 
by the early settlers. It is, therefore, not surprising that the 
people for whom surveys were executed, made special efforts to 
give the surveying parties good dinners, even going so far as to 



Journal. 29 

set before them " wine and rum punch." I may add here that 
there is neither tradition nor record that Washington was ever 
known to have been indiscreet from youth to age in the use of 
wine or strong drinks. 

good Feather Bed 18 with clean Sheets which was a 
very agreeable regale. 

Thursday 1 7 th Rain d till Ten oClock & then clear 
ing we reached as far as Major Campbells one of 
there Burgesses about 25 Miles from Town, nothing 
Remarkable this day nor Night but that we had a 
Tolerable good Bed lay on. 

Fryday i8 th We Travell d up about 35 Miles to 
Thomas Barwicks on Potomack 19 where we found y. 
River so excessively high by Reason of y. Great 

18 Feather beds, a great luxury in former times, have nearly 
gone out of use among well-to-do people. By the wealthy, as 
well as by the laborers, they were once a greatly prized comfort 
and often devised by will as valuable inheritances. Hair, 
cotton and spring mattresses have displaced them from popular 
favor, but "clean sheets" belong to the category of comforts 
in even early times and must be a delight and joy forever. 

19 Cohongoruton the Indian name by which the Potomac 
river was known to the Six Nations and other tribes of Indians. 
From its head-waters, to Point Lookout in the Chesapeake 
bay, this stream is the dividing line between Maryland and 
Virginia. 

Rains that had fallen up about y. Allegany Mountains 
as they told us which was then bringing down y. 
melted Snow & that it would not be fordable for 
severall Days it was then above Six foot Higher than 
usual & was rising we agreed to stay till Monday we 
this day call d to see y. Fam d Warm Springs 20 we 

20 The " Warm Springs," now known as " Bath " or "Berke 
ley Springs," were already famed, as Washington notes, in 



30 Journal. 

1747. They were deservedly popular for many years, but their 
remoteness and the difficulty of access to them, with the com 
petition of other resorts more easily reached, prevented their 
receiving the attention which the value of their waters merited. 
A settlement sprang up about the springs at an early date, 
which finally became a prosperous village under the name of 
Bath, and was made the county seat when, in 1820, the county 
of Morgan was formed. Washington bought lots here, built a 
cottage and stables, and passed summers here with his family. 
His half-brother, Lawrence, spent nearly a year at the springs 
for the benefit of his health before going to England and later 
to Barbadoes. The property-right in the springs is in the state 
of Virginia, and is held for the benefit of the public. 



camped out in y. field this Night Nothing Remark 
able happen d till sonday y. 2O th 

Sonday 2o th finding y. River not much abated we in 
y. Evening Swam our horses over & carried them to 
Charles Polks in Maryland for Pasturage till y. next 
Morning. 

Monday 2i st We went over in a Canoe & Travell d 
up Maryland side all y. Day in a Continued Rain to 
Coll Cresaps 21 right against y. Mouth of y. South 
Branch 22 about 40 Miles from Polks I believe y. worst 
Road that ever was trod by Man or Beast. 

21 Cresap, Col. Thomas, the founder of the family in Amer 
ica, was born in Skipton, Yorkshire, England, and at the age 
of about fifteen came to America. Some five years later he 
resided at Havre-de-Grace, Md., where he married a Miss John 
son. Removing thence to Wright s Ferry, opposite the town 
of Columbia, where he obtained a Maryland title to a 500 acre 
tract of land called " Peach Bottom," and built himself a small 
stone house. The land, however, was on disputed territory, 
and claimants under the laws of Pennsylvania finally dispos 
sessed him. His next move was to a locality in what is now 
Washington county, Md., where he located and settled upon a 



Journal. 3 1 

tract of 1,400 acres on the Antietam creek, called " Long 
Meadows," and began trading with the Indians. After col 
lecting a large lot of furs and skins he shipped them t to Eng 
land but was financially ruined through the capture of the ves 
sel by the French. Unable to repay money he had borrowed 
from Mr. Dulany, of Maryland, he gave up to him his land, 
and moved farther west, built a cabin a few miles above the 
junction of the north and south branches of the Potomac, on 
the Maryland side, at a place which became known as " Old 
Town," but which he called Skipton, the name of his York 
shire birthplace. This frontier spot became his permanent 
residence, where he eventually owned a large body of land on 
both sides of the Potomac. From his familiarity with the In 
dians and their habits and character, he was enabled to carry 
on with great advantage his trade with them and in time be 
came the most important frontiersman of his day in Maryland. 
He took part with the Washingtons, Lee, Mason and others in 
the formation and early operations of " The Ohio Company," 
and in all matters of dealing with the Indians and prospecting 
for wild lands was the Company s chief dependence. With 
the aid of Namacolin, a noted Indian hunter, he laid out the 
first road over the Alleghany mountains to the head-waters of 
the Ohio. Gen. Braddock s expedition, and later the National 
road, followed nearly the same route. The attention attracted 
to the Ohio region through this Company s explorations, made 
it increasingly important to both England and France to pos 
sess and control the lands beyond the Ohio. This vigilance 
precipitated the war that drove out the French and secured to 
England and America the vast dominion known as the North 
west. 

Col. Cresap s literary acquirements were small, but he had a 
vigorous mind, strong common sense, and was not deficient 
in practical self-education. He was one of the surveyors of 
Prince George s county which, at that period, embraced all the 
western part of Maryland. January 1, 1745, he surveyed for 
Gov. Thomas Bladen " Walnut Bottom " just below the mouth 
of Wills creek. He frequently represented his county in the 
Legislature and being noted for his clear understanding, sound 
judgment, firmness and courage, was esteemed one of the best 
legislators his county ever had. He was of medium stature, 
firmly set, of sound constitution, and lived to the uncommon 



3 2 Journal. 

age of 105 or 106. He was twice married, the second time at 
the age of 80 ; by his first wife he had five children ; three 
sons, Daniel, Thomas and Michael, and two daughters, Sarah 
and Elizabeth. Captain Michael Cresap was the person upon 
whom Thomas Jefferson fixed the stigma of the murder of the 
relatives of Logan. Jefferson having transmitted the pathetic 
speech of the Indian chief to the Abbe Raynal as an evidence 
of the original power of oratory of the aboriginal American, it 
is claimed more in a spirit of literary conceit than of conviction; 
however he failed during his life to correct the injustice done 
Cresap, although he was repeatedly furnished with the evidence 
exculpating Cresap and fixing the barbarous act on one Great- 
house. At his home, Col. Cresap dispensed, for his time and 
means, a generous hospitality to all callers, in a region where, 
as yet, no public houses were to be found, tie kept a big 
kettle ready suspended to place a fire under, near a spring for 
the use of the Indians who often passed his place, and for this 
reason they designated him the " Big Spoon." Lord Baltimore 
employed him to run a survey of the western line of Mary 
land, and to ascertain which of the two branches of the Poto 
mac was the largest. His autograph map of this survey is still 
preserved in the archives of the state of Maryland. 

22 The South Branch of the Potomac, of which the Indian 
name was Wappotomaka, rises in Pendleton county, West Vir 
ginia, among the spurs of the Alleghany and North mountains, 
and meets the North Branch about 20 miles below Cumber 
land, Md. The latter branch has been accepted as the dividing 
line between Maryland and Virginia, although now known to 
be neither as long nor as large as the South Branch. A line 
drawn due north from the extreme head-waters of the South 
Branch would run ten miles to the west of a parallel line from 
the head springs of the North Branch, thus proving the loss by 
Maryland of this strip of territory, as well as the region be 
tween the two branches, had the South Branch been taken in 
stead of the North Branch as the main river referred to in the 
Royal Charter, and made the line separating the contiguous 
colonies. The valley through which the South Branch flows 
is broad and its lands very fertile, causing them to be much 
sought after for farms by the hardy pioneers in the early days 
before the Revolution. It was then familiarly known as the 
" upper tract" of Virginia. 



Journal. 33 

Tuesday 22 d Continued Rain and y. Freshes kept 
us at Cresaps. 

Wednesday 23 d Rain d till about two oClock & 
Clear d when we were agreeably surpris d at y. sight 
of thirty odd Indians coming from War with only 
one Scalp 23 We had some Liquor with us of which 
we gave them Part it elevating there Spirits put them 
in y. Humour of Dauncing of whom we had a War 
Daunce 24 there manner of Dauncing is as follows Viz 
They clear a Large Circle & make a Great Fire in y. 
middle then seats themselves around it y. Speaker 
makes a grand Speech telling them in what Manner 
they are to Daunce after he has finish d y. best 
Dauncer Jumps up as one awaked out of a Sleep & 
Runs & Jumps about y. Ring in a most cornicle Man 
ner he is followed by y. Rest then begins there Mu 
sicians to Play y e Musick is a Pot half of Water with 
a Deerskin Streched over it as tight as it can & a 
goard with with some Shott in it to Rattle & a Piece 
of an horses Tail tied to it to make it look fine y. one 
keeps Rattling and y. other Drumming all y. while y. 
others is Dauncing 

23 Scalp a term applied to the tissues covering the human 
head, and embracing all the hairy integuments and flattened 
muscles from the back of the skull to the brow above the 
eyes. Taking the scalp of an enemy, living or dead, has been 
held from remote times as a special sign of victory and token 
of triumph. The North American Indians, particularly during 
the early colonial wars, took the scalps of their enemies, pre 
serving and exhibiting them with savage pride and occasionally 
wearing them as decorations and trophies. The assembly of 
Yirginia, in 1755, established a reward of 10 for every scalp 
5 



34 Journal. 

of a male Indian above the age of twelve (Hen ing s Statutes, 
vol. VI, p. 551). In 1757 this sum was raised to 15, and 30 
more for every scalp taken within the next two years (Hening, 
VII, p. 12 2). Maryland and Pennsylvania also offered rewards 
for Indian scalps. 

24 The war dance of the Indians probably had a significance 
to their minds not understood by civilized man, and was not to 
them the meaningless custom it seems to us. It has frequently 
been described and painted by eye-witnesses. In 1857 Virtue, 
Emmins & Co. copyrighted a very effective engraving of a war 
dance in the forest, arranged from Washington s description of 
it in this journal. 

Fryday 25 th 1 748 Nothing Remarkable on thursday 
but only being with y. Indians all day so shall slip 
it this day left Cresaps & went up to y. mouth of 
Patersons Creek 25 & there swam our Horses over got 
over ourselves in a Canoe & traveld up y. following 
Part of y. Day to Abram Johnstones 15 Miles from 
y e Mouth where we camped. 

25 Paterson Creek rises in Hampshire county, West Virginia, 
and empties into the Potomac about twelve miles below Cum 
berland, Md. On the old maps of Evans, Hutchins and Lewis, 
the name is given as Pattison. There are large tracts of good, 
arable land along the valley and bottoms adjacent to this stream. 
They began to attract settlements a little before the time Fort 
Cumberland was built. Fort Ashby was also erected to protect 
settlers along this stream. 

Saterday 26 Travelld up y e Creek to Solomon 
Hedges Esqr one of his Majestys Justices of y e Peace 
for y e County of Frederick where we camped when 
we came to Supper there was neither a Cloth upon 
y e Table nor a Knife to eat with but as good luck 
would have it we had Knives of own. 26 
28 Knife and fork at table. Polished nations have usages 



.Journal. 35 

which, at first view, appear natural or common to all mankind. 
This, however, is not the fact. That there was a period in the 
history of our race when the knife and fork were unknown to 
the furnishings of the table, cannot well be doubted ; and there 
was even a time when the table itself was not deemed an 
essential. At the present day the idea of eating a meal at 
table without the accompaniment of a knife and fork would 
excite disgust ; their absence, however, in a remote Virginia 
mountain cabin in 17478 as here recorded, simply shows that 
they had not been provided nor deemed essential to the life of 
a hunter, not an ignorance of their use, as the two-pronged, 
iron, table fork was in common use at that period throughout 
the settlements in all the American colonies. It is nevertheless 
true that the knife and fork now deemed so necessary at table, 
are a much more modern convenience than is generally sup 
posed. The king of Hungary, Coevinus, toward the close of 
the fifteenth century, as related by Galeotus Martius, ate his 
meat with his fingers as did all the guests at table. In Italy, 
the fork was, to a limited extent, in use at this time among 
the nobility. In France, at the end of the sixteenth century, 
forks were comparatively new at court. The use of the table 
fork is referred to in " Washington s Rules of Civility and 
Decent Behaviour" and in Hawkins Youths Companion, the 
source of these rules printed about 1650. The knife is perhaps 
one of the most ancient of instruments, it was made of different 
metals and in a great variety of forms. The table knife was, 
however, contemporary with the fork. According to Chamber- 
lin it was first made in England, in 1563. The use of the fork 
at table spread to Europe from Yenice, in Italy. In 1608 it 
was brought to England by Thomas Coryate who, while travel 
ing, observed its use in Italy and continued it himself on his 
return to England. (See his work entitled " Crudities.") It 
is rather disappointing that neither the Greeks nor Romans 
have even a name for the table fork. The flesh fork, called 
vreagra, with a long handle, for cooks to take meat out of a 
boiling pot, was known and used by the Hebrews and the 
Greeks. But had the table fork been used by the latter or by 
the Romans, some specimens would have been found among 
those extensive ruins which have been so carefully explored by 
modern investigators. It is known that some articles have 
been found, the use of which conjecture assigns to the table, 



36 Journal. 

but they are not forks and tlie surmise is not generally credited. 
The Chinese, who claim to have led the rest of the world in 
most of the economic inventions, seem to have overlooked the 
table fork and do not even now use it in cutting or conveying 
food to the month but employ in its stead the "chop sticks" 
which, it must be said in their praise, they use with skill and 
dexterity. It should be stated that large bronze forks were 
used by the Egyptians in presenting offerings to the gods. It 
is unpleasant to represent the tables of our ancestors of a few 
centuries back as without forks, yet this certainly was the fact. 
The silver table fork, which also had its evolution from two to 
four prongs, was first manufactured in 1662 by Heylin. 

The small knife, formerly worn by gentlemen at their girdles, 
was used by them, not only as a weapon of defense, but also 
as an article of convenience in cutting their meat. However, 
the ancient custom of serving food at table was to have a ser 
vant cut meats and other food into small morsels before dis 
tributing it to guests. The wealthy employed a person whose 
special duty it was to carve the meats into proper and conve 
nient pieces and his was the only knife in the dining hall. 
When the fork was first introduced into England, its employ 
ment was ridiculed as an effeminate practice, as may be seen 
in the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher, and others where the 
persons using it are referred to as "your fork-carving-traveler." 

Sunday 2/ th Travell d over to y. South Branch at 
tended with y. Esqr to Henry Vanmetriss 27 in order 
to go about Intended Work of Lots 28 

27 Henry Van Metre or Meter. There was a numerous 
family of the Van Meters in Virginia and they were among the 
earliest settlers in the valley of the Shenandoah, 011 the South 
Branch and along the upper Potomac. Kercheval, in his His 
tory of the Valley of Virginia, says this family came from New 
York and New Jersey. It is evident that they were people of 
energy and thrift, judges of good land. At a period antedat 
ing the settlements in the valley, it is stated by this historian 
that a John Van Meter, a sort of wandering Indian trader, of 
New York, accompanied the Delaware Indians in a war party 
against the Catawbas ; but the Catawbas anticipating the attack, 



Journal. 37 

surprised and defeated the Delawares in a battle fought near 
where the present court-house of Pendleton stands. John Van 
Meter escaped and returned to New York, but he was so im 
pressed with the beauty and fertility of the lands on the South 
Branch bottom in Hardy county, that he advised his sons to secure 
lands and locate there. Of these sons, Isaac became a man of 
note and frequently represented Hardy county in the House of 
Delegates of Virgin ia. He was a member of the Virginia Con 
vention of 1788 which ratified the Federal Constitution. In 
1730, it is a matter of history that John and Isaac Van Metre, 
brothers, obtained from Gov. Gooch, of Virginia, a warrant for 
40,000 acres of land to be located west of the mountains. This 
warrant, or a part of it, they sold to Joist Hite. A. number of 
tracts on the original warrant were surveyed in the vicinity of 
Shepherdstown. The name of Van Meter is still frequently met 
with throughout West Virginia and has its monument in a 
stream forming the north-western boundary line of Jefferson 
county and emptying into the Potomac, and named on the 
maps of Virginia Van Meter s Marsh. A controversy as to 
the validity of the Van Metre patent was raised in 1738 by 
Lord Fairfax and taken into the courts for adjudication. Lord 
Fairfax contending that his grants covered the whole of the 
western end of the northern neck, while the holders claimed 
that the governor, under authority from the crown, had dispos 
ing power. This conflict as to title was a source of much litiga 
tion, and was not finally settled until after the Revolution, 
when all the parties to the original suits were dead. 

8 Lots. This term, as used by surveyors, indicates portions, 
tracts, divisions and subdivisions of land. Each survey, lot or 
division when plotted is usually indicated by some name or de 
vice, as a number, a letter, or a symbol. So that each can then 
be described and referred to in a deed or an advertisement, and 
its location and boundaries be accurately and systematically de 
fined and described in a book of land records. 

Monday 28 th : Travell d up y Branch about 30 Miles 
to M r James Rutlidges 29 Horse Jockey & about 70 
Miles from y e Mouth 
29 James Rutledge. Kercheval, in his History of the Valley 



38 Journal. 

of Virginia, says that prominent among the earliest settlers on 
the South Branch, before the arrival of the Van Meters, were 
the Howards, Coburns, Walkers and Rutledgcs. 

Tuesday 2g ih This Morning went out & Survey d 
five Hundred Acres of Land & went down to one 
Michael Stumps on y e 8 Fork of y e Branch on our 
way Shot two Wild Turkies 30 

30 The wild turkey. This is the largest and finest of our 
game birds and, although native to North America, it bears a 
foreign name from the following circumstances. Specimens 
of the living bird, as well as its eggs, were sent by the early 
Jesuit missionaries to the old world on Spanish and Portuguese 
ships, entering Europe through Portugal. It was as yet un 
named, and was at first referred to by writers of that period 
merely as the " Jesuit bird." As it became known, the demand 
for the stranger was supplied chiefly from Turkey where, for 
some reason, it thrived exceedingly well, and in time it came 
to be familiarly spoken of as u the turkey." Gradually becom 
ing tame, and proving to be quite prolific, it was recognized as a 
great addition to the luxuries of the table. Speedily becoming 
a favorite in every country to which it was taken, the great forests 
and game preserves throughout Europe were gradually stocked 
with it and it was also raised as a domestic fowl. To-day the 
American turkey, derived as stated, is found wild in all the 
great forests of the old world, while the domesticated bird is 
abundantly raised everywhere in Europe for the markets. In 
ancient times, we are told, the choicest game fowls brought to 
a feast were pheasants and peacocks. Emigrants to America 
brought over with them the domesticated bird to its native land, 
but under a borrowed name. Washington, in his journal, 
April 7, 1748, records the fact that one of his men that day 
had killed a wild turkey weighing 20 pounds. The domesti 
cated bird, when permitted to attain the age of two or three 
years, and being well fed during the winter months, often 
readies the weight of 30 pounds or more. As marking in a 
degree the devastation of the late w r ar and the enforced aban 
donment of plantations in the section of Virginia adjacent to 
the city of Washington, it is a fact worthy of record, that in 



Journal. 39 

1876 the newspapers chronicled the news that the thickets and 
pine forests which were grown up since the armies left were 
tenanted by wild deer and turkeys ; foxes, etc. And to this 
day, December 25, 1890, wild turkeys are brought to the 
Washington market killed in Fairfax county, Va., within ten 
miles of Washington city. Gentlemen } s Magazine. 

March 29 th : 1748 Survey d for M r James Rutlidge 
y e following a piece of Land Beginning at 3 W. O. in 
y e Mannor Line 31 by a Path leading to y. Clay Lick 32 
& Extending thence N 44 W l 164 po. to a White 
Oak by a Drain at y e foot of a Mountain thence N 
46 E 1 487 po. to 2 White Oaks near a Branch call d 
Clay Lick Run thence S 44 E l 164 po. to 2 W : O : 
& a Hickory in y e Mannor line Finally along y e Man 
nor line Reversed S 46 W 4 487 po to y. Beginning 

HENRY ASHBY 

RICHARD TAYLOR 

W M DUNCAN Marker 

31 Manor line. In colonial times there were a number of 
manors, or great landed estates, granted under the then existing 
Jaws of England, to persons of note and quality in Virginia and 
in some of the other provinces. Holders of such estates enjoyed 
special rights and privileges. Manors were formerly called 
baronies and entitled the rightful possessor to lordships, and 
such lord or baron was empowered to hold domestic courts for 
redressing misdemeanors, nuisances and settling disputes among 
tenants. Among the manors of limited privileges in Virginia 
may be enumerated the " manor of Green way Court," with a 
domain of 10,000 acres. The great " manor of Leeds," which 
has figured so extensively in the courts of Virginia, contained 
150,000 acres within the counties of Culpeper, Fauquier and 
Frederick. The "South Branch manor," in Hardy county, 
embraced 55,000 acres ; " Paterson Creek manor," in Hamp 
shire county, 9,000 acres; and " Goony Run manor," adjoining 
that of Leeds and lying chiefly in Shenandoah county, 13,000 



>- Chainmen 



4-O Journal. 

acres. " Beverley s manor," for the most part in Augusta 
county, consisted of 118,411 acres, and "Fairfax manor," in 
Hampshire, of 10,000 acres. There were still other manors in 
different parts of the state. In New York under the Dutch 
government the baron or proprietor of the manor lands was 
called the patroon. 

12 Clay lick. Names of places or streams with the word lick 
either prefixed or affixed to them, such as " Salt lick," " Blue 
lick," "Grass lick." "Licking creek," etc., were usually given 
in consequence of the presence of some saline matter in the 
springs, streams or soil which attracted the wild animals and 
caused them to lick for the salt. Hunters in new settlements 
often built what they called blinds near these licks in which to 
conceal themselves, and waited there for the game to come, as 
they were pretty sure to do, almost daily, and at times in con 
siderable numbers, when they could be readily killed. 

Wednesday 3O th This Morning began our Intended 
Business of Laying of Lots we began at y e Boundary 
Line of y e Northern 10 Miles above Stumps & run 
of two Lots & returnd to Stumps 

The Courses & Distances of y e Several Lots lay d 
of on y e S Fork of Wappacomo 33 Began March 3o th . 
1748 

33 " Wappacomo," also spelled " Wappatomaka," was the 
Indian name for the South Branch of the Potomac. This 
stream courses through a fine valley from its head-springs in 
Pendleton county, and has many considerable branches rising 
among the spurs of the Alleghany mountains on the one side 
and the North or Cacapehon (Capon) mountain on the other, 
the latter separating it from the valley of Virginia on the east. 
The great or most noted fork of the South Branch is at More- 
field in Hardy county. Washington surveyed much of the 
land in that section. The young farmers seeking good lands 
had come in taken up considerable tracts and built improve 
ments before surveys were made or any effort to prove rights 
from either Lord Fairfax or the governor of Virginia. 



Journal. 4 1 

Lot y e I st Peter Reeds Begins at a Box Oak & 
Hickory F in y. Boundary line about 20 po. above a 
Large Spring on y e West side y e Fork in a Hollow of 
y e Mountains and extending thence N 65 E t 320 Po. 
to a White O: and Hickory on y e Mountain side 
thence S 60 E l 300 Po: Crossing y e Fork at 106 P: 
to 2 Spanish Oaks and W: O on y e Top of a Hill 
thence S 65 W 1 96 to a White Oak on y e Top of a 
Hill thence S 45 W fc 114 po. to a W: O on a Run 
thence S 13 W 1 148 to a Pine thence S 45 W 1 28 
po. to 2 R = O: bushes in y e Boundary line thence 
along y. same to y e Beginning 

Lot the 2 d Begins at a W: O & Hickory on a 
Mountain side Corner to Lot y e I st extending y e Line 
S 60 E fc 300 po. to 2 Spanish Oaks and W: O on a 
Hill thence N 30 E fc 2i4po to 2 W: O near a Branch 
thence N 60 W 1 244 po to y. S Fork 300 po. to a 
Ledge of Rocks on a Mountain side thence S 30 W fc 
214 to y e Beginning. 

Thursday 3 I st Early this Morning one of our Men 
went out with y e Gun & soon Returnd with two Wild 
Turkies we then went to our Business run of three 
Lots & returnd to our Camping place at Stumps 

March 3i st 

Lot the 3 d Begins at Ledge of Rocks corner to 

Lot 2 d extendth thence along y e s d line S 60 E* 300 

po to 2 W: O near a Branch thence N 30 E i 2i4po 

to a Pine on a Hillside near a Run thence N 60 W 1 

6 



42 Journal. 

78 to y. Bottom Ground 202* po. to y e River and 244 
po. to a Pine by a Rock on y. Mountain side thence 
to y e Beginning S. 30 W l 224 P. 

Lot 4 th this Lot survey d myself Beginning at a 
Pine by a Rock on a mountain side Corner to Lot 3 d 
& Running the s d line S 60 244 Poles to a Pine on 
a Hill side near a Run thence N 30 E i 262 P to 2 
Chesnut Oaks and a Pine thence N 60 W l 98 Pole 
to y e Low Grounds 164 to y e Fork and 244 P. to a R: 
O on a Rock thence S 30 W fc 262 Po to y. Beginning 

Lot 5 th Begins at a Red O on a Rock Corner to 
Lot 4 th & extendeth thence S 60 E l 244 Poles to 2 
Chesnut Oaks & a Pine thence N 30 E l 262 Po. to 
a W: O by a Run thence N 60 W fc 154 po to an ash 
1 08 po to y e Fork thence N 86 W fc 38 xing y e Fork 
78 xing it again and 100 Po: to a R: O on y e moun 
tain Side thence S 30 W l 262 Po to y e Beg g 

[April i st ] 

Lot y e 6 th Anthony Regar Begins at a Red Oak 
on a Mountain side Corner to Lot y e 5 th and extend 
ing thence along y e s d Line S 86 E 1 100 po. to an 
Ash thence with another of y e s d lines S 60 E t 154 
po: to a white Oak by a Run thence N 30 E fc 256 po 
to 3 pines on a Hill side thence N 60 W l 200 po: to 
y e Low Grounds 320 po to a Poplar standing in y e 
Fork thence to y e Begs 

Lot y e 7 th Harmon Shoker & Elias Cellars Begins 
at a Poplar standing on y e S Fork Corner to Lot y e 



Journal. 43 

6 th & Running along y e Line S 60 E 244 po to a 
Pine on a Hill side thence N 30 E l 262 po by 2 
Marked Pines thence N 60 W* 46 po to y e Low G: 
140 to y e Fork and 244 po to a Stone on y e side of a 
Mountain thence to y e Begin g S 30 W* 

Lot y e 8 th Vacant 34 Beginning at a Rock corner to 
lot 7 & Running along y e Line thereof S 60 E l 244 
po by 2 Pines thence N 35 E l 266 po. to 3 Chesnut 
Oaks on a Steep Hill side thence N 55 E 54 po. to 
y e Low Grounds 80 po. to y e Fork 190 po to y e farr 
Edge of y e Low G: 244 po. to a Chesnut Oak on y e 
Mountain side thence to y e Begining 

34 Vacant this term, as used by surveyors, indicates that 
the tract of land so designated is neither claimed by an actual 
occupant or occupied by virtue of any official record. Many of 
the settlers on the lands of Lord Fairfax selected their farms 
and made iinprovemeDts without any legal survey, warrant or 
title, other than a " tomahawk blaze " for a boundary mark, 
trusting that the actual owner of the land would recognize the 
improvement and occupant s claim and deal justly by them. 
These " tomahawk claims " were respected by the actual settlers, 
had a market value among land speculators and were admitted, 
to a certain extent, as evidence of rights in the courts. 

Fryday April y e I st 1748 This Morning Shot twice 
at Wild Turkies but killd none run of three Lots & 
returned to Camp 

Saterday April 2 d Last Night was a blowing & Rainy 
night Our Straw catch d a Fire y l we were laying upon 
& was luckily Preserv d by one of our Mens awaking 
when it was in a we run of four Lots this 

Day which Reached below Stumps 



44 Journal. 



April 



Lot y e 9 th 

Begining at Chesnut Oak on y e Mountain side 
corner to Lot 8 th & Running along y e Line thereof 
S 55 E l 244 po to 3 Chesnut Oaks on a Steep 
Side thence N 35 E i 262 po to 2 Chesnut Oaks 
& a White Oak thence N 65 E l 80 to y e Low G: 1 26 
po to y c Fork 244 po to a Hickory at y e Foot of the 
Mountain thence to y e Beginning S 35 W* 262 po 
this Lot is very Good 

Lot io th Michael Calb Liveron Begining at a Hick 
ory Corner to Lot y e Q th & Runing along y e Line 
S 55 E l 244 Pole to 2 Chesnut Oaks thence N 35 
E l 262 po to 2 pines & a Spanish Oak on y e Top of a 
Hill thence N 55 W l 84 po to y e Low G: 230, po to y e 
Fork 270 po to a Red O: on y e Mountain Side thence 
to y e Beginning 

Lot y e n th Leonard Nave Beginning at a Red O: 
on y e Mountain side Corner to Lot y e io th & Running 
along y e Line S 55 E l 270 Po to 2 Pines on y e Top of 
a Hill thence N 35 E l 262 po. to a Pine on a Hill 
side thence N 55 E 180 po to y e Bottom 248 po to 
y e Fork 274 to an Ash at y e Foot of y e Mountain 
thence to y e Beg. 

Lot 12 th Michael Stumps Begins at an Ash at y e 
Foot of y e Mountain Corner to Lot n & Running 
along y e Line S 55 E l 274 Po: to a Pine thence N 
25 E l 320 po to 2 Pines thence N 65 W l 188 po to 



Journal. 45 

y e Low G: 280 po to 2 Sycamores & a White Wood 
tree Standing on y e Fork thence up and Crossing y e 
Fork to y e Begg 

Sunday 3 d Last Night was a much more blostering 
night than y e former we had our Tent Carried Quite 
of with y e Wind and was obliged to Lie y e Latter part 
of y e night without covering there came several Per 
sons to see us this day one of our Men Shot a Wild 
Turkic 

Monday 4 th this morning M r Fairfax left us with 
Intent to go down to y e Mouth of y e Branch we did 
two Lots & was attended by a great Company of 
People Men Women & Children that attended us 
through y e Woods as we went showing there Antick 
tricks I really think they seem to be as Ignorant a Set 
of People as the Indians they would never speak 
English but when spoken to they speak all Dutch 35 
this day our Tent was blown down by y e Violentness 
of y* Wind 

35 Dutch. As early as 1730 there was a considerable settle 
ment in the Shenandoah valley, of German immigrants and 
their descendants, who bad first settled in Pennsylvania and 
tben removed to, and taken up lands in, the valley of Yirginia. 
They selected, chiefly, the good limestone lands with their cen 
ters of population near the head- waters of the Opequon creek, 
in Shenandoah, and the south-western part of Frederick county. 
They were all Protestants in religion . The town of Wood 
stock was originally and exclusively settled by Germans. The 
bill for its incorporation was reported to the House of Burgesses 
of Ya., by Col. George Washington in 1761. For many years 
the German language was exclusively spoken in their settle 
ment, and German customs and religious observances were re- 



46 Journal. 

tained with tenacity, their remoteness and seclusion securing 
to them almost perfect freedom from innovations. The Rev 
olution found them patriotic supporters of the colony as against 
the pretensions of Great Britain. It was in the town of Wood 
stock, Shenandoah county, that Maj.-Gen. John Peter Gabriel 
Muhlenberg, minister of the Lutheran church, dressed in his 
uniform and with his sword buckled on, preached a farewell 
sermon in 1776, to a sympathizing and patriotic congregation, 
and the next day marched as colonel at the head of his German 
regiment, known subsequently as the 8th Virginia, to join the 
Continental army. Such names of places as JStrasburg, Ham 
burg, Mecklenburg, the latter now known as Shepherdstown, 
etc., perpetuate the fact that many of the earliest settlers in 
that section were German. See Kercheval, p. 158. 

April 4 d 

Lot y e 13 Vacant Begins at 2 Sycamores and a 
White Wood Tree standing on y e fork Corner to 
Lot 12 th & Running along y e Line S 65 E l 280 po. 
to 2 pines thence N 25 E 4 228 Po. to a Spanish Oak 
thence N 65 W fc 206 to y e Low G: 248 po to y e Fork 
280 to a Rock Stone on y e Mountain Side thence to 
the Beginning S 25 W 4 228 poles 

Lot 14 th James Simson s Begins at a Rock Stone on 
y e Mountain Side Corner to Lot y e 13 th & Runs thence 
S 65 E l 280 pole to a Spanish Oak thence N 25 E 
228 pole to a Large Hickory in a Vally thence N 65 
W l 1 08 to y e Low G: 180 pole to y e Fork 280 pole to 
3 Red Oaks on y e Mountain side near a Spring 
Branch thence to y e Beginning S 25 W l 228 pole this 
Lot I survay d. 

The Courses of y e Fork from Lot 14 th Down to y e 
Mannor Line Beginning at 2 Red Bud Trees 36 & a 



Journal. 47 

36 The Red Bud or Judas tree. A common tree that grows 
wild in the United States. In botany it is known as the 
u Cercis Canadensis" and often grows to the height of 30 feet 
or more. It flowers in April, clothing its limbs in a reddish- 
purple bloom for a week or ten days before its leaves appear, 
and from this circumstance it is popularly called red bud. 

Black Walnut on y e West side y e Fork & Running 
Down y e Several Courses of y e Fork N 9 E* 19 po 
N 34 W 1 12 po N 15 E 22 po N 39 E l 24 po N 
12 E* 23 po N 17 W fc 66 po N 6 E l 42 po opposite 
to Henry Harris s house N 26 W fc 20 po West 32 op 
Phillip Moors house bears N 86 W* N 23 W l 48 po 
to a Blazed Tree 37 from here Phillip Moors house bears 
S 54 W* N 6 W fc 33 po N 28 E 26 po N 73 E 28 
po N 7 W* 85 po to a blazed tree N 45 W* 24 po. y e 
Widow Wolfs 38 house bears S 52 W l about 60 po. N 

37 Blazed trees. These are surveyors marks made on trees 
to proclaim and identify certain routes or lines. The " blaze " 
is made by removing with an axe a strip of the outer bark of a 
tree or sapling, for about a foot in length and well into the 
inner bark. In the future growth of the tree a lighter color 
marks the cicatrix which rarely ever wholly disappears. Sur 
veyors, to distinguish corner trees in a survey, not only blaze 
the sides of the tree in the direction their lines run but cut 
three small notches through the bark which will remain dis 
tinct during the life of the tree. 

38 Widow Wolf. There was a Fort Wolf on Stony creek a 
few miles south-west of Woodstock, erected by the Germans at 
an early period in the settlement of the valley ; there is also a 
marsh or creek named Wolfs marsh, which empties into the 
Shenandoah about twelve miles above Ashby s Ferry. Possi 
bly these were so called from the name of this widow s hus 
band. 

65 W 27 po S 84 W 18 po. S 50 W 14 po S. 19 W 



48 Journal. 

20 po N 67 W l 22 po. N 28 W l 23 po. S 78 W fc 29 
po N 71 W l 25 po. N 39 W l 19 po N 3 W 1 24 
po. x x N 60 W l 20 po N 39 W l 20 po N 8 E i 46 po 
to an Ash black Walnut & White Walnut in y e Man- 
nor Line on y e s d fork thence S 36 W l along y e 
Manner Line 320 poles to 2 W : O & a R : O. 

Tuesday 5 th We went out & did 4 Lots we were 
attended by y e same Company of People y l we had y e 
day before 

April y e 5 th 1 748 

Lot y e 15 th Phillip Moore Beginning at Lot y e 14 th 
on y e Fork & Running down y e Meanders to y e 
first Blazed Tree a Black Oak on y e Fork thence S 
69 W* 80 to y e Edge of y e Low G : 226 po to a Span 
ish Oak thence S 41 E i 296 po. to a White Oak on 
a Mountain side thence N 40 E l 38 po to 3 Red 
Oaks on a Mountain side near a Spring Branch this 
Lot very good 

Lot y e i6 th and i7 th Widow Wolfs and Henry Shep- 
lars a Black Smith by trade Begins at a Black Walnut 
on y e Fork & Runs S 17 W 76 po to a Red Oak & 
Hickory 90 po Crossing y e Road about 20 po: above 
y e house 226 po to 2 W: O thence N 41 W 1 96 po 
to 2 White Oaks in y e Mannorline to y e River the line 
of y e i6 th Lot from y e 2 W: O S 41 E l 

Lot 1 8 th Jeremiah Osborne s Begins at a Sycamore 
on y e , Fork & extending N 80 E l 215 po. to a Cries- 
nut Oak thence South 280 po to a W: O near a Hick- 



Journal. 49 

ory Corner to Lot y e 14 th thence along the line thereof 
to y e Fork thence down y e Several Meanders of y e 
Fork to y e Beginning 

Wednesday 6 th Last Night was so Intolerably 
smoky that we were obliged all hands to leave y e Tent 
to y e Mercy of y e Wind and Fire this day was at 
tended by our afore d Company untill about 12 oClock 
when we finish d we travell d down y e Branch to 
Henry Vanmetris s on our Journey was catch d in a 
very heavy Rain we got under a Straw House untill 
y e Worst of it was over & then continued our 
Journey 

April 6 th 

Lot 19 Begg: at a Spanish Oak corner to Lot i8 th 
& Runing thence N 23 W l 350 po to 3 W: O 
thence S 36 W t 164 po 94 to y e Low G: to 2 Locust 
Trees on y e Fork 

Lot y e 2o th Begg at 2 Locusts on y e Fork Corner 
to Lot 19 th & Runing along y e Line N 36 E l 164 
po to 3 W: O thence N 23 W* 250 po 3 Red Oaks 
in y e Manner line thence Down y e Manner line 

Thursday ; th Rain d Successively all Last night 
this Morning one of our men Killed a Wild Turkic 
that weight 20 Pounds we went & Survey d 15 Hun 
dred Acres of Land & Return d to Vanmetris s about 
i o Clock about two I heard that M r Fairfax was come 
up & at i Peter Casseys about 2 Miles of in y e same 
Old Field 39 I then took my Horse & went up to see 
7 



50 Journal. 

39 Old Fields and Wild Meadow. There were many small, 
timberless tracts of land on the mountains and in the great 
valleys of Virginia and Pennsylvania, in regions which were 
generally, prior to the occupation and the clearing up of the 
country by the white man, densely covered with trees. Large 
tracts of such timberless land existed in the region now em 
braced within the counties of Berkeley, Jefferson and Frederick. 
Strange as it may appear some of this kind of land within the 
history of the settlement of the valley became covered with 
young forest timber. In some respects these openings resembled 
the treeless prairies of the west. No satisfactory explanation 
of this frequently observed condition has ever been given. 
Many of these meadows were the favorite pasturing grounds of 
the large game and were, therefore, of special interest to the hun 
ter. Clearfield county, Pa., it is believed, got its name from 
the fact that there were within its territory extensive natural 
clear fields and meadows. 

him we eat our Dinners & walked down to Vanme- 
tris s we stayed about two Hours & Walked back 
again and slept in Casseys House which was y e first 
Night I had slept in a House since I came to y e 
Branch 

Fryday 8 th we breakfasted at Casseys & Rode down 
to Vanmetris s to get all our Company together which 
when we had accomplished we Rode down below y e 
Trough in order to Lay of Lots there we laid of one 
this day The Trough is couple of Ledges of Moun 
tain Impassable running side & side together for 
above 7 or 8 Miles & y e River down between them 
you must Ride Round y e back of y e Mountain for to 
get below them we Camped this Night in y e Woods 
near a Wild Meadow where was a Large Stack of 
Hay after we had Pitched our Tent & made a very 



Journal. 5 1 

Large Fire we pull d out our Knapsack in order to 
Recruit ourselves every was his own Cook our Spits 
was Forked Sticks our Plates was a Large Chip as 
for Dishes we had none 

Saterday 9 th Set ye Surveyor 40 to work whilst M r 
Fairfax & myself stayed at y e Tent our Provision 
being all exhausted & y e Person that was to bring us 
a Recruit disappointing us we were oblige to go 
without untill we could get some from y e Neigh 
bours which was not till about 4 or 5 oClock in y e 
Evening we then took our Leaves of y e Rest of our 
Company Road Down to John Colins in order to set 
off next Day homewards 

40 From the expression, " set the surveyor to work," as well 
as the language used in the record on the 12th of March, that 
" Mr. James G-enn the surveyor came to us and traveled over 
the Blue Ridge, etc.," with other expressions at a later date of 
similar import in the journal and in other documents, it is ren 
dered almost certain that George Washington was, from the 
first, employed by Lord Fairfax, not as a surveyor, merely, 
but rather in the capacity of a skilled director of other survey 
ors, and as the confidential adviser in the division and sale of 
his lordship s lands. 

Sunday io th We took our farewell of y e Branch 
& travell d over Hills and Mountains to i Coddys on 
Great Cacapehon about 40 Miles 

Monday i I th We travell d from Coddys down to 
Frederick Town where we Reached about 12 oClock 
we dined in Town and then went to Cap 1 Kites & 
Lodged 



5 2 Journal. 

Tuesday 12 th We set of from Capt. Hites in order 
to go over W ms Gap 41 about 20 Miles and after Rid 
ing about 20 Miles we had 20 to go for we had lost 
ourselves & got up as High as Ashbys Bent 4 2 we did 
get over W ms Gap that Night and as low as W m Wests 
in Fairfax 43 County 18 Miles from y e Top of y e Ridge 
This day see a Rattled Snake y e first we had seen in 
all our Journey 

41 Williams Gap, in the Blue Ridge, is on a line nearly due 
east from Winchester. It derived its name from a Mr. Williams, 
who kept a ferry over the Shenandoah river on one of the 
roads from Winchester into Loudoun and Fairfax counties. 
This name still attaches to the gap and appears on the early 
maps of Virginia. It is a notahle fact that all or most of the 
important gaps through mountain passes in the United States 
were well worn buffalo paths and Indian trails when first visited 
by white men. 

42 Ashhy s Bent is supposed to have reference to the great 
bend and extensive bottom lands of the Shenandoah, just above 
which was located Captain Ashby s ferry across that river. 
Washington uses this term in 1770 to describe a large tract of 
bottom land on the Ohio which he acquired. 

43 Fairfax county, in which Mount Yernon is located, was 
created out of Prince William county by the Assembly of 
Virginia in 1742. 

Wednesday y e 13 th of April 1748 

M r Fairfax got safe home and I myself safe to my 
Brothers 44 which concludes my Journal 45 

44 Major Lawrence Washington, proprietor of Mount Vernon, 
was the second child and oldest surviving son of Augustine 
and his first wife Jane (Butler) Washington, born at Pope s 
Creek, Westmoreland county, Va., in 1718, and died at his 
residence, Mount Vernon, 26th July, 1752. He was the half- 
brother of the illustrious George Washington and great-grand 
son of the emigrant, Col. John Washington, who came to Vir- 



Journal. 53 

ginia about 1657. It is a matter of tradition that Lawrence 
was at about the age of 15 sent to England to be educated, and 
leaving college he received a captain s commission to serve in 
a regiment raised in Virginia to take part in the expedition 
against Carthegenia, 1740-42, under the command of Admiral 
Vernon. 

The expedition failed of its purpose, and Major Lawrence 
Washington returned to Virginia in the fall of 1742. He shortly 
after became engaged to Anne Fairfax, which induced him to re 
sign from the army. His father died April 12, 1743, leaving a 
considerable estate and named him, his oldest son, one of 
his executors. He inherited from his father "the Hunting 
creek" plantation, consisting of 2,500 acres, on the Potomac 
but a few miles from and in sight of " Belvoir." On the 19th 
of July Lawrence Washington was united in marriage to Anne, 
eldest daughter of the Hon. William Fairfax of " Belvoir." He 
made many improvements on his plantation and gave it the 
name of " Mount Vernon," in compliment to his old com 
mander, Admiral Vernon. Lawrence Washington had received 
a good education, had mixed with prominent personages, had 
seen much of the world, and was a man of good habits and 
business qualifications. 

His father at the time of his death, was largely engaged in 
business which Lawrence was obliged to look after and close up. 
This gradually led him into various business enterprises; such 
as the manufacturing of iron, buying and selling land, etc. He 
and his brother Augustin were among the organizers of " The 
Ohio Company," to explore the western country, encourage set 
tlements, and conduct a trade with the Indians. He was elected 
to the House of Burgesses of Virginia from Fairfax county in 
1748. It was largely through his influence that a charter was 
granted to the towns of Alexandria and Colchester, both in 
Fairfax county. He together with Lord Fairfax, George 
Mason, Hon. William Fairfax, William Ramsay, John Carlyle 
and others was named as trustee to lay out and govern the town. 
He was a popular legislator, but declined to serve longer in 
the Assembly, as it interfered with his present business. He 
was greatly attached to his brother George, and made it a point 
to have him with him at Mount Vernon whenever it was prac 
ticable without interrupting his studies. Lawrence was always 
of a delicate constitution, but by his prudent habits and system- 



54 Journal. 

atic attention to business he accomplished a great deal and en 
hanced the value of his possessions. He was tall in stature and 
a man of fine personal appearance, as is shown by an oil paint 
ing of him which still hangs upon the wall of the Virginia 
room in Mount Vernon mansion. He was rapidly becoming 
one of the leading business men of Virginia, when his health 
broke down. As a last resort his physicians recommended that 
he should spend a winter in the West Indies. In the fall of 
1751, he resigned his commission as one of the adjutant-generals 
of Virginia, and taking his brother George with him, he went 
to the Island of Barbadoes. His pulmonary trouble had pro 
gressed too far to be arrested, and after spending some five 
months on the Island, and finding himself declining he re 
turned home and died in July, 1752. His marriage had been 
blessed by four children, three of whom had died, his surviv 
ing child, Sarah, was still an infant at the time of her father s 
death. After providing in his will for his wife he left Mount 
Vernon to his daughter, but in the event of her death without 
heirs it was to go to his " beloved brother George," who was 
also named as one of his executors. This daughter Sarah died 
within a year, and George inherited Mount Vernon before he 
was 21 years of age. A few years after Lawrence Washington s 
death, his widow married George Lee, brother to the father of 
Arthur and Richard Henry Lee, patriots in the Revolution. 

45 The note book which contains this journal of Washington s 
includes also other memoranda, such as notes of surveys, drafts 
of juvenile letters, verses, etc., all of which are of interest for 
the glimpses they give of the character and early life of their 
author, and are copied with literal exactness and given with the 
journal and surveys. 

The Manner how to Draw up a Return when Sur- 
vey d for His Lordship or any of y e Family 

March y e 15 th 1747-8 

Then Survey d for George Fairfax Esqr. Three 
Thousand & twenty Three Acres of Land lying in 
Frederick County 46 on Long Marsh Joyning Thomas 
Johnstones Land and bounded as follows 



Jo2trnal. 55 

46 Frederick county, Virginia, was formed by Act of As 
sembly in 1738, out of Orange county at the same time that 
Augusta county was created. The boundaries of Frederick 
county were measurably well defined ; to Augusta, however, 
was left all the western territory belonging to V irginia, much 
of it at that time an unexplored wilderness. This immense 
area has since been divided and now forms four great and in 
dependent states of the Union, namely, Kentucky, Indiana, 
Ohio and Illinois. Frederick county, by a return of the 
effective militia made to the governor of Virginia in 1777, had 
but 923 men . The total population of the town of Winchester 
at that time was 800 and a fraction. Kercheval. 

Beginning at (A) Three Hickorys Corner Trees 
to Thomas Johnstones Land & Extending thence 
along his S 13 W* One Hundred Seventy two Poles 
to (B) a Locust Johnstones Corner thence along 
another of his Lines S 34 E* 150 po. to (C) a White 
Oak another of his Corners thence S 75 E 1 186 po 
& to (D) a large Hickory thence N 58 E* 160 po 
xing a Spring Run to (E) three Red Oak Fx on a 
Ridge thence N 30 E fc 436 po to a Hickory an Red 
Oak Fx at (F) thence N 60 W l 90 po to (G) a Large 
White Oak Fx thence N 7 E fc 420 po xing Long 
Marsh to (H) two Red Oaks and a W: O: Fx in a 
Bottom in y e afores d Thomas Johnstones line finally 
along his line S 80 E 1 one Hundred fourteen Poles 
toy 6 Beginning Containing Three Thousand & twenty 
three Acres. 

p r JAMES GENN 
HENRY ASHBY ) ^ T . ,^ 
RICHARD TAYLOR } Ckam Men 
ROBERT ASHBY Marker. 
WM. LINDSEY Pilot. 



56 Journal. 

N. B. The Distances in y e above Writing ought 
to be Written in Letters not in figures only I have 
done it now for Brevity sake 47 

47 At this place in the journal three leaves, six pages, have 
heen torn out. The edges left show that they had been written 
upon by Washington. The next record of a survey in the 
hand-writing of Washington is signed by him with the name of 
James Genn, as is also the incomplete plot of a survey here 
reproduced from the original by tracing; whether it is a study 
from Held notes by James Genn or an actual survey by Wash 
ington himself does not appear. The paper upon which it is 
drawn and the style of the hand-writing, place it as of a date 
current with the added records of 1747-8. 

The Courses & Distances of the Following Plat is 
as follows viz beginning at A and running thence N 
30 E l 436 poles thence N 60 W fc 90 pole thence N 7 
E l 365 pole to Long Marsh & 420 to the end of the 
Course thence N 65 W 1 134 pole thence S 20 W l 1 26 
poles crossing Long Marsh to a Branch thereof com 
monly calld Cates Marsh 218 pole to the end of the 
Course thence N 80 W fc 558 pole thence S 25 W l 144 
pole thence S 33^ E 1 96 pole S 20 E l 316 pole thence 
S 80 E l 114 pole thence East 280 pole thence S 15 
E l 262 to the Beginning Survey d by 

JAMES GENN 

The Courses of the Town of Alexandria 48 

48 Alexandria, Virginia. This seems to be a brief record of 
the course and distances of a survey by Washington of the 
shore-line of the town of Alexandria before the river bank was 
improved or altered by the building of wharves and the grad 
ing of streets. It is probable that these lines were run in the 
winter when the river was closed with ice. 



Wwiaa/,&ttff 

"7 / J / 




Journal. 57 

The Meanders of the River 

S 84^ E 1 3 Chain 

S 52 E fc 4 C 17 L 

S 24 E 5 C 9 L to the Point at a sm 1 Hickory 
stump above the Landing Place 

S 70 E i C 25 L 

S 45 E 3 C 18 L 

DEAR SIR 

I should receive a Letter or Letters from you by 
the first and all oppertunetys with the greatest sense 
or mark of your esteem and affection whereas its the 
greatest Pleasure I can yet forsee of having in fairfax 
to hear from my Intimate friends and acquaintances 
I hope you in Particular will not Bauk me of what I 
so ardently Wish for 49 

49 This appears to have been a study for a letter to some 
youthful companion. Even to the close of his life it was the 
habit of Washington, in writing important letters and papers, 
to make rough drafts of them as a study. However, in copy 
ing them off, he frequently changed expressions and amplified 
their contents as his judgment approved. The original drafts 
of many of his letters are preserved in the Department of State 
at Washington and illustrate this fact. Hence the transcripts 
in his letter-book are not always true copies of either his drafts 
or his original autograph letters. These drafts were kept by 
him as memoranda, rather than as exact copies. It is also prob 
able that there are many drafts preserved of letters which were 
never actually sent. In some cases he endorses this fact upon 
drafts of letters. 

DEAR FRIEND JOHN S 

As its the greatest mark of friendship and esteem 
you can shew to an absent Friend In often Writing 

8 



58 Journal. 

to him so hope you l not deny me that Favour as its 
so ardently wish d and desired by me its the greatest 
pleasure I can yet forsee of having in fairfax to hear 
from my friends Particularly yourself was my affec 
tions disengaged I might perhaps form some pleas 
ures in the conversasion of an agreeable Young 
Lady as theres one now Lives in the same house 
with me but as that is only nourishment to my for 
mer affec n for by often seeing her brings the other 
into my remembrance whereas perhaps was she not 
often & (unavoidably) presenting herself to my view 
I might in some measure eliviate my sorrows by 
burying the other in the grave of Oblivion I am well 
convinced my heart stands in defiance of all others 
but only she thats given it cause enough to dread a 
second assault and from a different Quarter tho I 
well know let it have as many attacks as it will from 
others they cant be more fierce than it has been I 
could wish to know whether you have taken your in 
tended trip downwards or not if you with what Suc 
cess as also to know how my friend Lawrence drives 
on in his art of courtship as I fancy you may both 
nearlly guess how it will respectively go with each 
of you 

9 Dear Sir, Dear Friend John, and Dear Friend Robin. 
These all seem to be studies or drafts of letters, which may 
have been impersonal or possibly to his youthful school-fellows 
and companions in Westmoreland and Stafford counties. It 
would be idle to speculate as to whom they were intended, in 
the absence of more definite information. They are in no wise 
remarkable, except as evidences of Washington s life-long habit 
of making memoranda, drafts and studies of his letters. 



Journal. 59 

DEAR FRIEND ROBIN 

As its the greatest mark of friendship and esteem 
absent Friends can shew each other in Writing and 
often communicating their thoughts to his fellow com 
panions makes me endeavour to signalize myself in 
acquainting you from time to time and at all times 
my situation and employments of Life and could 
Wish you would take half the Pains of contriving me 
a Letter by any oppertunity as you may be well assured 
of its meeting with a very welcome reception my 
Place of Residence is at present at His Lordships 
where I might was my heart disengag d pass my time 
very pleasantly as theres a very agreeable Young Lady 
Lives in the same house (Col George Fairfax s Wife s 
Sister 51 ) but as thats only adding Fuel to fire it makes 
me the more uneasy for by often and unavoidably 
being in Company with her revives my former Passion 
for your Low Land Beauty 52 whereas was I to live 
more retired from yound Women I might in some 
measure eliviate my sorrows by burying that chast and 
troublesome Passion in the grave of oblivion or etar- 
nall forgetfulness for as ,1 am very well assured thats 
the only antidote or remedy that I ever shall be releivd 
by or only recess that can administer any cure or help 
to me as I am well convinced was I ever to attempt 
any thing I should only get a denial which would be 
only adding grief to uneasiness 

51 The young lady indicated was Miss Mary Gary, the daugh 
ter of Colonel Wilson Gary, of Ceeleys Hampton, Elisabeth 
City county, Ya. For 34 years Mr. Gary was collector of cus- 



6o Journal. 

toms for the lower James river district, and a man of large 
wealth and aristocratic notions. He had four daughters : Sarah, 
who married George W. Fairfax, of " Belvoir " ; Mary, who 
married in 1 754-, Edward Ambler of Jamestown; Anna, wlio 
married Robert Carter Nicholas; and Elizabeth, who married 
Rev. Bryan, 8th Lord Fairfax. Col. Gary had also one son 
Wilson Allies Gary, who was a member of the Convention of 
Virginia in 1776. Some writers have confounded him with 
his father. Bishop Meade in his Old Churches and Families 
of Virginia, accepts traditions which other writers claim are 
authenticated by documents, preserved by the Ambler family, 
and accordingly his account credits the story that Washington, 
in his youth, was an ardent admirer of Miss Mary Gary, and 
solicited leave of Col. Gary to address his daughter, but was re 
fused. (See Meade, vol. i, 108.) This draft of the letter ad 
dressed to "Dear Friend Robin," was probably made in the 
spring of 174:8, when Washington was in his seventeenth year. 
In it, he playfully avows an admiration for the "lowland 
beauty" and, at the same time, admits the agreeableness of the 
" young lady in the house " with him at u Belvoir." Mr. 
Edward Ambler, educated at Cambridge, England, was col 
lector for York river and a burgess for Jamestown. He died 
in 1768 in his thirty-fifth year and was buried at Jamestown ; 
his widow survived him until 1781. Mrs. Ambler with her 
children and her sister, Mrs. Fairfax, were occasionally guests 
at Mount Vernon, as Washington s diaries show. I am inclined 
to believe that while it is true that Washington entertained a 
high regard for the Gary family and particularly the ladies, 
there is nothing but the lightest gossip to create an inference 
that there ever w r as even an incipient affair of the heart be 
tween either of the Misses Gary and Washington. 

62 Lowland beauty. Who this object of Washington s 
early admiration was, if she had a veritable existence, is not 
positively known. Irving, followed by Everett and others, 
accepts the tradition, or rather surmises, that this sobriquet re 
ferred to Miss Lucy Grymes of Westmoreland county, who in 
1753 married Henry Lee, Esq. Their son was the gallant 
General Henry Lee, " Lighthorse Harry," of the Revolution. 
Some recent writers, affect to believe that this draft of a letter 
is conclusive that there was a real love affair but that Betsy 



Journal. 61 

Fauntleroy, of Fredericksburg, Ya., was the person re 
ferred to, and have published a letter purporting to have been 
addressed by Washington to William Fauntleroy, Sr., Esq., 
in Richmond, enclosing one to Miss Betsy, who, it is made to 
appear, had also refused Washington s addresses. Letters and 
traditions of this character should be received with caution, for 
while vague reports and surmises of an affair of the heart may 
be dilated upon in a bantering way among friends of the parties 
where there is little or no foundation for the allegation, yet 
they should be subjected to scrutiny and some positive evidence 
adduced before they are accepted as historical facts. 

DEAR SALLY 

This comes to Fredericksburg fair in hopes of 
meeting with a speedy Passage to you if your not 
there which hope you l get shortly altho I am almost 
discouraged from writing to you as this is my fouth to 
you since I receiv d any from yourself I hope you l not 
make the Old Proverb good out of sight out of Mind 
as its one of the greatest Pleasures I can yet foresee of 
having in Fairfax in often hearing from you hope 
you l not deny it me 

I Pass the time of much more agreeabler than what 
I imagined I should as there s a very agreeable Young 
Lady lives in the same house where I reside (Col 
George Fairfax s Wife Sister) that in a great Measure 
cheats my sorrow and dejectedness tho not so as to 
draw my thoughts altogether from your Parts I could 
wish to be with you down there with all my heart but 
as it is a thing almost Impractakable shall rest myself 
where I am with hopes of shortly having some Min 
utes of your transactions in your Parts which will be 
very welcomely receiv d by Your 



62 Journal. 

DEAR SIR It would be the greatest Satisfaction 

Memorandom 53 to have my Coat made by the fol 
lowing Directions to be made a Frock with a Lapel 
Breast the Lapel to Contain on each side six Button 
Holes and to be about 5 or 6 Inches wide all the 
way equal and to turn as the Breast on the Coat does 
to have it made very Long Waisted and in Length 
to come down to or below the bent of the knee the 
Waist from the armpit to the Fold to be exactly as 
long or Longer than from thence to the Bottom not 
to have more than one fold in the Skirt and the top 
to be made just to turn in and three Button Holes 
the Lapel at the top to turn as the Cape of the Coat 
and Bottom to Come Parrallel with the Button Holes 
the Last Button hole in the Breast to be right op- 
posit to the Button on the Hip 54 

53 The minuteness of detail is very characteristic of the writer. 
While Washington was observant of the proprieties of life and 
of good taste in dress, there was not the least leaning to fop 
pishness. IJiit it was a principle with him to have whatever 
he bought, consonant with good taste and of the best quality. 

54 At this point in the book there are 18 blank pages. 

DEAR RICHARD 

The Receipt of your kind favour of the 2 d of this 
Instant afforded me unspeakable pleasure as I am 
convinced I am still in the Memory of so Worthy a 
friend a friendship I shall ever be proud of Increasing 
you gave me the more pleasure as I receiv d it amongst 
a parcel of Barbarians and an uncooth set of People 
the like favour often repeated would give me Pleasure 



Journal. 63 

altho I seem to be in a Place where no real satis: is 
to be had since you receid my Letter in October Last 
I have not sleep d above three Nights or four in a 
bed but after Walking a good deal all the Day lay 
down before the fire upon a Little Hay Straw Fodder 
or bearskin whichever is to be had with Man Wife 
and Children like a Parcel of Dogs or Catts & happy s 
he that gets the Birth nearest the fire there s nothing 
would make it pass of tolerably but a good Reward 
a Dubbleloon is my constant gain every Day that the 
Weather will permit my going out and some time 
Six Pistoles 55 the coldness of the Weather will not 
allow my making a long stay as the Lodging is rather 
too cold for the time of Year I have never had my 
Cloths of but lay and sleep in them like a Negro 
except the few Nights I have lay n in Frederick 
Town. 

55 A Pistole. This coin was worth, at the time Washington 
wrote this journal, about $3.60. A doubloon was worth twice 
that amount. 

Mem To Survey the Lands at the Mouth of Little 
Cacapehon 56 & the Mouth of Fifteen Mile Creek 57 for 
the Gentlemen of the Ohio Com: 58 

56 Cacapehon, now generally written Capon. There are two 
streams in the same vicinity known by this name, and to dis 
tinguish them, one is called " Great Capon " and the other 
" Little Capon." Both are tributaries to the Potomac. 

57 Fifteen Mile creek rises in Maryland and flows in a south 
easterly direction, emptying into the Potomac river between 
Sideling Hill creek and Town creek, about 15 miles above Han 
cock, Md. 



64 Journal. 

58 " The Ohio Company " grew into existence out of efforts by 
Virginians, dated as early as 1746 or 1747, to secure a share in 
the lucrative Indian trade, and with the prospect of opening to 
settlement the lands on the upper waters of the Ohio. An 
early move in this direction had been made by Colonel Thomas 
Cresap, a man of courage, judgment and enterprise qualities 
required for trading successfully with the Indians. He had 
erected his cabin at Oldtown, Md. About 1746 Lawrence and 
Augustine Washington, after making some cautious business 
ventures in the Indian trade, with others assisted to organize 
" this Ohio Company." Thomas Lee, whose second son, Richard 
Henry Lee, was to become so .conspicuous a patriot of the Rev 
olution, and John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant, were 
original members of this company, into which still other men 
of substance and standing were admitted, and to which, in 
1749, the British government gave a charter, as " The Ohio 
Company," with a grant of half a million acres of land, to be 
located between the Monongahela and Kanawha rivers, on the 
soutli side of the Ohio. With but twenty shares of stock at 
first issue, the company s prosperity seemed assured, and both 
Governor Dinwiddie and George Mason, at a later date pur 
chased an interest in it. Among the early Washington manu 
scripts appears the above memorandum of a survey for this 
company. Although this entry is without date it must have 
been earlier, judging from its position in the note-book, than 
the charter. This document imposed, as conditions of the land 
grant, that the company should at once survey two hundred 
thousand acres, and within seven years secure the settlement 
of not less than one hundred families, erect forts, and maintain 
a garrison against the Indians, conditions on the fulfilment 
of which they were to be for ten years exempt from the pay 
ment of quit-rents. Mr. Christopher Gist was employed as the 
company s agent, and on October 19, 1749, entered upon his 
duties of inspecting the country, contiguous to the Ohio river, 
reporting upon the character of the lands, making surveys, 
keeping a journal of his observations, drawing plans of the ter 
ritory, etc. In 1750 the company built a small store-house at 
Will s creek and stocked it with goods from London to the 
value of 4,000. In 1752 Mr. Gist held a council with the 
Indians on the Ohio in behalf of the company, and secured 
their permission to lay out a town and erect a fort at McKee s 



Journal. 65 

Rocks at the mouth of Chartier s creek, upon the east side of 
the Ohio, a few miles below Pittsburg. Washington, in his 
diary, alludes to this, and says of the position : u I think it 
greatly inferior, either for defense or advantage, especially the 
latter : For a fort at the forks would be equally well situated 
on the Ohio, and have the entire command of the Mononga- 
hela." In 1751 the company began making a road to the 
mouth of the Monongahela, but for lack of adequate resources, 
made only slow progress. The company looked upon the lands 
around Will s creek as being within their grant. They also 
erected a store-house at the mouth of Redstone on the Monon 
gahela and began some improvements at the forks of the Ohio, 
immediately after completing those at Will s creek. At the 
latter place they had the adjacent lands surveyed on both sides 
the stream, above and below the forks, and laid out a town to 
which they gave the name of Charlottesburg in honor of the 
Princess Charlotte, afterward wife of King George. The 
French and Indian war, with other stirring political events, 
compelled the company to be cautious and to contract its opera 
tions, but, its embarrassments increasing from the course pur 
sued toward it by the English government, prompted by en 
vious rival interests, the consent of its agent, George Mercer, 
Esq., was finally gained to merge the Ohio Company into a 
Grand Company, under what was known as the Walpole Grant 
or Company. Their proposal was as follows : u We, the Com 
mittee of the Purchasers of a Tract of Country for a new Prov 
ince on the Ohio in America, do hereby admit the Ohio Com 
pany as a Co-Purchaser with us for two shares of the said 
Purchase,* in Consideration of the Engagement of their Agent, 
Col. Mercer, to withdraw the application of the said Company 
for a separate Grant within the Limits of the said Purchase. 

Witness our Hands this 7 th Day of May 1770 
THOMAS WALPOLE 
S. POWNALL 

* The whole being divided into seventy- "R T?T? A1VTTT T1VT 
two equal Shares by the words "two shares" *; JpJ^S ^^ \ -r^^ 
above is understood twoSeventy-secoad parts SAMU.LL WHARTON 
of the Tract so as above Purchased. 

THOMAS WALPOLE 

S. POWNALL 

B. FRANKLIN 

SAMUEL WHARTON 

See American Historical Review, vol. iii, p. 205. 
This action, however, was not approved by the American 
9 



66 Journal. 

members of the company, and the final collapse of the whole 
enterprise was one of the results of the Revolution. 

I heartily congratulate you 59 on the happy News of 
my Brothers safe arrival in health in England and am 
joy d to hear that his stay is likely to be so short I hope 
you ll make Use of your Natural Resolution and con- 
tendness as they are the only Remedys to spend the 
time with ease & pleasure to yourself I am deprived 
of the pleasure of waiting on you (as I expected) by 
Ague and Feaver which I have had to Extremety 
since I left which has occasioned my Return D 

59 Memorandum or draft of a letter to his sister-in-law Anne, 
wife of Lawrence Washington, of Mount Vernon, made, very 
possibly, while in the field surveying in the fall of 1748 or 
spring of 1749. This visit to Europe, of Lawrence Washing 
ton, was partly in the interest of the Ohio Company and partly 
on account of his failing health which, unfortunately, was not 
benefited by the voyage as had been hoped. 

Memorandom to charge M rs Aus. Washington 60 
with 4 /Q and i8 d the 30 of July to a Maryland Hen- 
wife as also Major Law: Washington with i 73 lent 
the 15 of August 5 /g the 17 D 2 /6 D: I read to 
the Reign of K : John 

60 Mrs. Aus. Washington evidently refers to Mrs. Augustine 
Washington, of Westmoreland, the wife of George s half- 
brother, Augustine, with whom he had made his home while 
attending Mr. William s Academy. Austin is, or has been, in 
Virginia a contraction for Augustine. Augustine Moore, a 
notable character, is recorded interchangeably, in land and other 
records, as Augustine and as Austin Moore. It is presumed 
that "The Maryland Housewife" was intended to have been 
written, that being the name of a popular book on cookery and 
the art of housekeeping at that period. The date of this mem- 



Journal. 67 

orandum is presumed to be 1748. A charge in his book of 
accounts kept at this time, and which was among the relics 
of Lawrence Washington sold in Philadelphia in the spring of 
1891, would fix the date as July 28th, 1748. It was not an un 
usual thing for Washington in his youth to use contractions in 
writing the first names of his brothers, the following are exam 
ples: Aus., Austin for Augustine ; Sam for Samuel ; Jack and 
John, simply for John Augustine. 

In the Spectators Read to N I43 61 
Mem : 

When I see my Brother Austin to Enquire of him 
whether He is the Acting Attorney for my Brother 
and as my Brother Lawrence left Directions with the 
H. on W Fx 62 to remit his Pay as Agetant whether it 
would not be more proper to keep it to Pay the Notes 
of Hand thats Daily coming against him and to Write 
Word to Williamsburg to Acquaint his Hon : my B : 
A : to write him word. 

61 This is about the only record Washington has left of his 
course of reading. It is inferred that the books were either at 
" Greenway Court" or at "Belvoir." The character of the 
works he selected for his perusal is what might have been ex 
pected. This memorandum also exhibits a trait in his character 
prominent throughout his life, that of giving attention to mi 
nute details of business. It may truly be said of him that " the 
boy was father to the man." 

62 Honorable William Fairfax, of " Belvoir," Fairfax county, 
Ya., was born 1691 in Yorkshire, England, where his father 
that year became high sheriff of the county. His father was 
the son of Henry Fairfax, 2d son of 4th Lord Fairfax and Anna 
(Harrison) Fairfax, whose sister, Eleanora Harrison, of South 
Cave, married in 1689, Henry Washington; their son, Richard 
Washington, who resided in London, was, therefore, an English 
cousin of Wm. Fairfax, and a correspondent both of his and of 
Col. George Washington s (see Washington s correspondence, 



68 Journal. 

in Sparks). Win. Fairfax lost his father when quite young 
and was educated at his uncle s, Sir John Lowther s College. 
Through the influence of Capt. Fairfax, of the Royal Navy, lie 
entered that service in 1 710 and served for two years. He 
then joined the British army in Spain under Col. Martin Bladen, 
who had married a Fairfax, and was stationed at St. iJelena in 
1716-17, and subsequently at the Bahamas, and returned to 
England in October, 1717. Having married in the Bahamas, 
Sarah, daughter of Maj. Walker, of Nassau, she accompanied 
him to England. In 1718 Wm. Fairfax was sent out with 
Captain or Governor Woodes Rogers as chief justice to sup 
press the pirates infesting the West Indies. His residence was 
at Nassau, New Providence. The business for which he ac 
cepted office having been completed and the climate not being 
congenial, he in 1725 removed to New England. Here he re 
ceived an appointment to the custom house at Salem, which he 
held until 1734. While a resident of Salem, his first wife died 
and was buried there. His son George William was born in 
Nassau, three of his children were born in Salem. Thomas, of 
the Royal Navy, was killed in battle ; Anne married Lawrence 
Washington, and was the first mistress of Mount Yernon ; and 
Sarah married John Carlyle, of Alexandria, Va., who was a 
major and commissary in the French and Indian war. Mr. 
Fairfax married, January 18, 1731, Deborah Clarke, of Salem, 
Mass. Her first child was Bryan, 8th Lord Fairfax, born at 
Salem 1732, but better known as the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, who 
died in 1802. In 1<34 Wm. Fairfax accepted an offer, he had 
before declined, to remove to Virginia and act as agent for his 
cousin, Lord Thomas Fairfax, in the management of the vast 
Fairfax land estate. He at first took up his residence in West 
moreland county and remained there for several years, but af 
terward improved the plantation, built "Belvoir" mansion, six 
miles below " Mount Vernon," and removed to it. He was 
residing there in 1739, when Lord Fairfax first visited Virginia 
and made it his home for a year. Wm. Fairfax, from his high 
character and acquaintance with business, soon came to the 
front among the leading men in Virginia. Besides being agent 
for his cousin, he served in the assembly of Virginia, and after 
the death of John Blair was president of the Provincial coun 
cil and collector of his majesty s customs for the South Poto 
mac. His second wife bore him two children, besides Bryan 



Journal. 69 

already mentioned, "William Henry, killed at the storming of 
Quebec in 1759 ; and Hannah, who married Warner Washing 
ton, cousin to George Washington. William Fairfax was a 
man of great executive ability and much beloved by the com 
munity. He died September 3, 1757. His wife survived him 
but a few years. " Belvoir " was left to George W. Fairfax 
and was his residence until he went to England in 1773. 

Memorandam of what Cloths I Carry into Fairfax 

Razor 63 

7 Shirts 2 D Carr d by M r Thornton 64 
6 Linnen Waistcoats 
i Cloth D - 

6 Bands 65 

4 Neck Cloths 66 

7 Caps 67 - 

63 The razor in colonial days was an essential part of a gentle 
man s toilet outfit. Washington had a strong beard and was 
early called upon to use his razor. Long, full beards were not 
then in fashion in America. It is a notable fact that there is 
not a portrait extant of an American-born patriot or statesman 
of the Revolutionary period, painted with a full beard. This 
memorandum, although not dated, is believed to have been 
written in 1748. The clean shaven face was constrained by 
the fashion of the continent ; and prevailed as the custom in 
England and France for a period of quite 75 years. 

64 The Thorntons intermarried with the Washingtons. 

65 A kind of shirt collar. 

66 Neck Cloths. These were usually made of fine white 
cambric, folded wide, were wrapped twice around the neck and 
worn without collars. 

67 Caps. The number here will attract attention considering 
the list of other articles ; but it must be remembered that it was 
the custom at that period for both men and women to wear 
caps at night in bed. At the time when this journal was writ- 



70 Journal. 

ten, bed rooms were not heated, hence the custom of warming 
beds before retiring in winter, and the necessity for wearing 
night caps is more apparent, and, further, the head was fre 
quently shaven and wigs were worn during the day by many. 
It is the tradition that Patrick Henry wore at home, in the day, 
even, when not in full dress, a " tarred cotton cap," whilst in 
public he wore a wig. In speaking, when he was earnestly 
moved, a striking emphasis of his is said to have been a rapid 
whirling of his wig around his head. 

M : the regulater of my watch now is 4 M : and 
over the fifth from the Slow end 

Twas Perfect Love before J y M A h - w 

But Now I do adore j 

What s the Noblest Passion of the Mind? 6:2: 
M : Delivered M rs Humphras this 30* Day of Oc 
tober 2 Shirts the one marked G W the other not 
marked i p r of Hoes & one Band to be Washed against 
November Court in Frederick 68 
68 At this point in the journal several blank pages occur. 

Oh Ye Gods why should my Poor Resistless Heart 

Stand to oppose thy might and Power 
At Last surrender to cupids feather d Dart 

And now lays Bleeding every Hour 
For her that s Pityless of my grief and Woes 

And will not on me Pity take 
He sleep amongst my most inveterate Foes 

And with gladness never wish to wake 
In deluding sleepings let my Eyelids close 

That in an enraptured Dream I may 
In a soft lulling sleep and gentle repose 

Possess those joys denied by Day 



Journal. 7 1 

From your bright sparkling Eyes, I was undone ; 
Rays, you have ; more transparent than the Sun, 
Amidst its glory in the rising Day, 
None can you equal in your bright array ; 
Constant in your calm and unspotted Mind ; 
Equal to all, but will to none Prove kind, 
So knowing, seldom one so Young, you l Find. 
Ah ! woe s me, that I should Love and conceal"] 
Long have I wish d, but never dare reveal, 
Even though severely Loves Pains I feel : j 
Xerxes that great, was t free from Cupids Dart, 
And all the greatest Heroes, felt the smart. 69 

69 The poetical effusions of George Washington are neither 
numerous nor notable. The specimens here given are found 
on the spare pages of his memoranda mixed in with his notes of 
surveys. Some leaves are missiug at this point and the conclud 
ing lines of one poem, at least, are lost. 

A List of the Peoples Names that 

I have Warrants for 70 

Acres 

Richard Arnold Frederick C 400 

before the 25 th Day of April 

Barnaby MKannary D 400 

on the Lost River 71 

Silvenus Smith D 400 

John Wilton D 300 

James M c Koy D 400 

James Kinson D 400 

Ann Dunbarr 400 

And w Vincy of Augusta 400 

Robert Denton D 400 



72 Journal. 

Acres 

John Stackhouse of Fred k 400 

Sam 1 Kinsman D 400 

Tho s Wiggans D 400 

George Horner D 200 

Darby M c Keaver D 400 

Jos h Howt : fr m New En R D 400 

Jn Ellwick Sen r of Augusta 400 

James Hamilton J r 400 

Land warrants were granted by the Crown, by the Legisla 
ture or its authorized agent, and by the governors of the prov 
inces. A warrant had the character of a commission and guar 
anteed title. Land warrants issued in accordance with law 
were negotiable, and when laid and the survey plotted by a 
licensed surveyor and recorded in the land office, were main 
tained by the courts as against all other claimants. 

The following is an exact copy of an order from G. W. Fair 
fax, agent of Lord Fairfax, for the sale of unseated lands in the 
" Northern Neck of Virginia " to George Washington a licensed 
surveyor in Virginia as his warrant to survey a particular par 
cel of land. The original document was in the possession of J. 
A. Russell, Esq., of New Fork city, in 1869, and is published in 
the Historical Magazine for March of that year, p. 197 : - 

" To MR. G. WASHINGTON 

" WHEREAS, Barthalamore Anderson, of Frederick County 
hath Informed that there are about Four hundred 50 Acres of 
Waste and Ungranted Land in the said County, formerly 
granted to Thomas Morgan ~by Jost Hite as p. Bond for the 
same & by Assignment to the s d Anderson, on Arnolds Run 
a branch of Shenandoah. 

" And Desiring a Warrant to survey the same in order to ob 
tain a Deed, being ready to Pay the Composition and Office 
Charges. 

" These are therefore to Empower You the s d G. Washing 
ton to survey the s (1 Waste Land. 

" Provided this be the first Warrant that hath Issued for the 
same and you are to make a just, true and Acurate survey 



Journal. 73 

thereof, Describing the courses and distances p. Pole, also the 
Buttings and Boundings of the several Persons Lands adjoin 
ing, and where you cannot Join on any known Lines, you are 
to make Breadth of the tract to bear at least the proportion of 
one-third part of the length as the Law of Virginia Directs, 
you are also to Insert the Names of the Pilot and Chain Car 
riers made use of and Employed, a Plat of which s d Survey 
with this Warrant you are to give into this Office any time be 
fore the twenty -fifth Day of March next ensuing. Given 
under my Hand and Seal of the Proprietors Office this thir 
teenth day of Oct. 1750 in the Twenty-Fourth year of His 
Majesty King George the Second s Eeign. 

"G.W.FAIRFAX." 
[ENDORSED.] 

" Barthalamore Anderson s Warr for 450 Acres 
" M r Washington s Retur d the 8 th Feb y 1750-1. 

" To be paid p L d Fx 
61 

71 Lost River. This stream gets its name from the fact that 
for three miles it passes out of sight under a mountain which 
lies across its course. It rises in Hardy county, W. Ya., and 
flows in a north-easterly direction to the Cacapehon river. The 
following diagram is made from a pen drawing by Washington 
in his field note book, but not definitely related to this particu 
lar survey. 

MY LORD 

I went Last Tuesday not knowing your Lordship 
had that very Day set out for Neavils to see whether 
you had any further Commands or directions to give 
concerning the Surveying of Cacapehon and as your 
Lordship was not at Home I was inform by Col G. 
Fairfax that you had not any Directions in Particu 
lar more than were given to the other Surveyors as 
your Lordship had mentioned I therefore have made 
bold to Proceed on General Directions from him as 
10 



74 Journal. 

Missing this Opportunity of Good Weather may be of 
considerable Hindrance I shall Wait on your Lordship 
at Frederick Court in November to obey your further 
Pleasure and am my Lord & 72 

- Here terminates the entries in the little note book, con 
taining "My Journey Over the Mountains." It is proper to 
state that the journal was kept in a small, vellum-hound, blank 
book, 6 by 3f inches in size, closely written on both sides of 
the leaf. Either from a desire to classify his memoranda, or 
for want of a second book, or from some motive of economy, 
he turned the book around and began from the other end to 
keep a record more particularly relating to his surveys and 
miscellaneous affairs. His iield notes of surveys were kept in 
a book of the same size as the one described, from which the 
most of the following surveys are taken. The other surveys 
are found on loose sheets which have been bound and denom 
inated miscellaneous papers ; a few of them having dates, en 
ables the editor to place them in chronological order. 

Then Survey d for M r John Monroe y e following 

Tract of land bounded as follows 

Poles 

A Beginning at a marked white oak i N 20 o F 1 *o 68 

B N 20 oo E toaChesnut \ * 2 " ^ I3 " 8 

C Thence to a Red oak N 7i,,oo E 116,44 

D Thence to a Spanish oak near a Swamp.. . . S 73,, oo E i88,,24 

E Thence to Hiccory S 44 E is8,,72 

F Thence to a red oak Stump. . S I4,,oo E i86,,24 

G Thence to a Black Gum S 88,,oo VV 244,,oo 

From thence to the Beginning 

Then survey d for M r John Watts y e Following 

Tract of Land bounded as followeth 

Courses 

A Beginning: at a Marked red Oak / c T , , AV , 

B S 15" 30 W to a Sweet Gum [Si 53 oW 400.56 

C Thence to a Chesnut S 59,,oo W 200.40 

D Thence to a Walnut N 45,,oo W 240.24 

E Thence to a White Oak N io,,oo E 200.00 

F Thence to a Maple N 35, ,00 E 300.00 

From thence to the Beginning 



Journal. 75 

Then Survey d for M r Francis Jett the following 
Tract of Land bounded as follows 

A Beginning at a Marked Hiccory S 20. W. . . ) c A1T 

B to S White Oak [ S 2O " W I2 

C Thence to a Walnut Stump S 63,, oo W 160 

D Thence to a Red Oak on the top of a Hill.. . . S 85,, oo W 80 

E Thence to a Black Gum near a Valley N 66,, oo W 116 

F Thence to a Dogwood near a Swamp N 35, ,00 W 63 

G Thence to a Mulberry standing in Corn-field. N 35, ,00 E 97 

H Thence to a Sasafras N 45, ,00 E 157 

From thence to the Beginning 

Then Survey d for Cap* Henry Washington y e fol 
lowing Tract of Land bounded as follows 

Poles 

A Beginning at a red Oak S 25 oo W ) ^ 

B near the road running to a red Oak Saplin. . . f * 

C Thence to white Oak S 2300 E 24 

D Thence to Spanish Oak S 55 oo W 34 

E Thence to a Black Gum ... N 76 oo W 30 

F Thence to a Black Oak... N 25 oo W 62 

G Thence to Caleb Butlers old Field N oo oo W 104 

H Thence to a White Oak S 7600 E 70 

I Thence to a Red Oak N 7800 E 56 

August 1 8 th 1747 Then survey d the following 
Piece of Land at one Station in the School House old 
field bounded as p r field Book. Viz 1 Beginning near 
a Persimon within y e field Extending thence to a 
Fence Stake S 15 oo E i65,,oo 28 Pole thence 
S 19 oo W 199 oo 27.5 Pole thence S 47 W 
227 oo 18.9 thence S 76 oo W 256 oo 7 21.4 
thence N 42 W 318 oo 46.3 thence N 29 oo E 
29 oo 7 34 Pole. 

October i st 1747 Then Survey d the following 
Piece of Land for M r Richard Roe Bounded as fol 
lows Beginning at a Chesnut extending thence S 



76 Journal. 

20 oo W 38 Pole thence N 75 ooW 39.7 P thence 
N 46 oo W 41.1 P thence S 68 oo W 21.3 thence 
N 29 oo W 25.3 thence S 77 oo E 4 Pole thence 
N 60 oo E 25.1 Pole thence S 42 oo E 14 Pole 
thence S 79 oo E 14 Pole thence East from thence 
to the beginning S 60 45 
E 



Then Survey d for M r Francis Jett the following 
Tract of Land Bounded as p r Field Book 73 

A N 56.15 Remarks y distance 

B N 51 oo E 39-19 from A to B being Inac- 

C S 65 oo E 34.14 cessable I took an Angle 

D S 4900 E 50.15 within y e field from A to 

E S 20 oo E 29.00 a house bearing N 73 

F S 70 oo W 62.13 oo E 46 Pole thence to B 

G N 5830 W 20.24 bearing N 48 oo W 

H S 8330 W 30.00 

Survey d for M rs Elizabeth Washington y e Following 
Tract of Land whose thirds is required to be laid off 
20 Pole from H towards K & the Division line to run 
towards B C 74 

Courses Dist : Poles 

A S 54,, oo W 67,,oo 

B N 45, ,00 W 36,,oo 

C N 7 6,,oo W 45,,- 

D N 31, ,00 E 60,, Acres Roods Perch : 

E N 56,,oo E 35,, Area 52 ,, i ,, 39 

F N 21, ,00 E 30,,24 

G S 51, ,00 E 40,, 20 Scale 50 Parts to an Inch. 

H S 34,, oo E 4i,,6o 

I S 04,, oo W 34,,2o 

SURVEY D For Richard Barnes Gent" of Rich 
mond County 75 a certain Tract of Waste and un- 
granted Land Situate Lying and being in the county 
of Culpeper 76 and Bounded as followeth Beginning 



Journal. 77 

75 For this survey Washington received the sum of 2 3s Od 
on the 25th of July, 1749, as shown by entry in his cash book ; 
a copy of which is in the Toner Collection, Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 

76 Culpeper county, Virginia, was formed by act of assembly 
in 1748, and named in honor of Lord Thomas Culpeper, gov 
ernor of Virginia from 1682 to 1686. The old family name 
was spelled with two p s, but in using the name as a locality 
one p is dropped. Its original form, however, was Cole- 
peper. The widow of Lord Culpeper spelled her name and 
wrote it, "Mar. Culpeper Leeds Castle, Dec. 19, 1706." 
Lord Culpeper and Lord Arlington had obtained from Charles 
II in 1672 a grant of proprietary rights over the whole of 
Virginia, but within a short time, in consequence of resist 
ance by the colonists, surrendered all except quit rents and 
escheats, and a duty of three half-pence per pound on to 
bacco. Two years after ceasing to be governor, Lord Cul 
peper, who had become by purchase sole owner of the grant, 
further abandoned all his rights except that of property 
in the lands of that part of the Northern Neck beyond the 
Blue Ridge, with an annual pension of 600 for twenty years 
in lieu of what he gave up. This estate of about 5,700,000 
acres of land in the Shenandoah valley and the mountains be 
yond, went to his daughter and heiress, Catherine, who became 
the wife of Thomas, the 5th Lord Fairfax, and from her to 
their son Thomas the 6th, and the first American Lord Fairfax 
of Washington s time. Lord Culpeper had been one of the 
commissioners of plantations under Charles II, and was a man of 
ability for business and public affairs, although rapacious; and, 
as governor, wholly British, without that sympathy for Virginia 
interest, such as Berkeley, with all his faults, had shown. The 
county of Culpeper, however, was conspicuous for the patriot 
ism of its inhabitants during the Revolution. Her 4 minute 
men," Randolph said on the floor of the United States Senate, 
" were raised in a minute, armed in a minute, marched in a 
minute, fought in a minute, and vanquished in a minute." 
The motto on their flag was, " The Culpeper Minute Men," 
along the top border; in the center a curled rattlesnake with 
head erect and rattling tail; on either side the words " Liberty 

or Death ; " and beneath, along the lower border, " Don t 



78 Journal. 

Tread on Me." In the clerk s office of Cnlpeper court house 
is recorded the following: "20 July, 1T49 [O. S.] George 
Washington, Gent., produced a commission from the President 
and Master of William and Mary College, appointing him to 
be surveyor of this county, which was read, and thereupon he 
took the usual oaths," etc. 

at three white Oaks in Normans Line and Corner 
Trees to (Aaron Pinson s now) M r Barnes s Land 
& Extending thence N 42 30 W l Ninety five Poles 
to a branch of Flat Run Two hund d and Eighteen 
Poles to a Large white Oak Corner to Norman thence 
along another of his Lines N 39 E l Thirty four Poles 
to three white Oaks & a Hickory Cor: to the said 
Norman and John Roberts thence along Robert s Line 
S 78 W l One hund d and Eighty three Poles to the 
Road that Leads over Norman s Foard Two hund d 
and Sixteen Poles to two white Oaks in a Glade Cor r 
to the said Roberts and M r Francis Slaughter thence 
with the said Slaughters Line S 5 W l One hund d and 
Sixty four Poles to three white Oaks in the said 
Slaughter Line thence leaving his Line S 66 E* 
Two hund d and thirty Six Poles to three white Oaks 
amongst a Parcel of Rock Stones Barnes s Corner 
thence with his Line N 53 E 1 One hund d and Eighty 
Six Poles to the Beginning Containing Four Hun 
dred Acres this Twenty Second Day of July 1749. 
JOHN LONEM 
EDWARD CORDER 
EDWARD HOG AN Marker 
by 

WASHINGTON S C C 77 



Vol l.p 14 



^v iSn+Hm^erylf **t. JOI+ A^tft^L^uSna ^ 




A 

BOOK of PURVEYS 

Began 

JULY 22 




Journal. 79 

77 Washington, S. C. C. This is supposed to be an official 
check mark signature of George Washington as a licensed sur 
veyor of Culpeper county. The plat of this survey is published 
by Sparks, vol. 1, p. 14, and is reproduced here, as the editor 
has failed, so far, in finding the original among any of the 
Washington papers extant. The plat bears date two days after 
he tiled his certificate and took the necessary oath before the 
court in Culpeper county referred to in the preceding note. 

SURVEY D For Edward Hogan a certain Tract of 
Waste and Ungranted Land Situate Lying and being 
in the County of Augusta 78 and on the Lost River or 

78 Augusta county, and also Frederick county, were formed 
in 1738, out of Orange county which, prior to that date, had 
embraced all of Virginia beyond the Blue Ridge. The bounds 
of Frederick were defined as follows : the Potomac on the north, 
the Blue Ridge on the east, and on the south and west a line 
drawn from the head spring of the Hedgman creek to the head 
spring of the Potomac; all beyond this line, comprising the 
immense western territory belonging to Virginia, constituted 
Augusta county. The earliest Frederick county court was held 
at Winchester, Nov. 11, 1743; and that of Augusta county was 
held at Beverley s Mill Place, now Staunton, Dec. 9, 1745. 

Cacapehon about Six Miles within the Boundary Line 
of the Northern Neck and bounded as followeth 
Beginning at a white Oak and white Pine Saplins on 
the West Side of the River and Runs thence S 68 
E 1 Two hundred and Eighty Poles to three Chesnut 
Oaks on a Steep Mountain Side thence N 9 E l Two 
hundred and three Poles to three Pines on the Moun 
tain Side thence N 68 W* Two hund* and Eighty 
Poles to two white Oaks in a Drain that makes from 
the Mountains thence S 2 W i One hundred and 
thirty two Poles to two white Oaks thence S 22 W t 



So Journal. 

Sixty Eight po. to the Beginning Containing Three 

hundred and Thirty five Acres this I st Day of Novem 

her I749 79 

JOHN LONEM ) 

EDWARD CORDER j 

EDWARD HOGAN Marker 

by 

WASHINGTON S C C 

79 The notes of the survey of land, on the 22d July, 1749, 
for Richard Barnes, and that of November 12, 1749, for Ed 
ward Hogan, were recorded on sheets of foolscap paper, and 
are bound up with other early miscellaneous papers of George 
Washington, preserved in the Department of State. They are 
here given nearly in their chronological place. 

November 2 d 1749 Then Surveyd for Robert Den- 
ton a certain Tract of ungranted Land Situate in 
Augusta County and on the Lost River of Cacapehon 
and Bounded as followeth Beginning at two white 
Pines and a Pitch and running thence S 62 E 1 Three 
Hundred Poles to a Chesnut, Pine and Spanish Oak 
on a Mountain Side thence N 28 E t Two hundred & 
Six poles to two white Oakes and a Hick, thence 
leaving the Mountain N 62 W l Three hun d poles to 
two Pines and a white Oak on a steep Hill thence to 
the Beginning 

E Plat drawn 

ROBERT DENTON, Marker 

November 2 d 1 749 8 Then Survey d for James Ham- 

80 This entry is in a new book of the same dimensions as the 
one described ; first pages of it are blank page 7 is the h rst 
written upon ; pages 8 and 9 gone ; page 10 blank. 



Journal. 8 1 

ilton a certain Tract of Waste Land lying on Caca- 
pehon and bounded as followeth Beginning at three 
Pines on a Mountain Side Corner to Edward Hogan 
and running thence along his Line N 68 W* Two 
Hundred and Eighty Poles to three white Oaks 
another of his Corner s thence along the Mountain 
Side N 27 E fc Two hundred Poles to a Poplar a Lynn 
& white Walnut Trees standing on the Creek thence 
crossing the Creek S. 68 E fc Two hundred and Eighty 
Poles to a Large Black Oak and two Chesnut Trees 
growing from one Root thence to the Beginning along 
the side of an Inaccessable Mountain 

E. Plat drawn 

HOGAN Marker 

Survey d for Francis M c Bride Three hundred and 
Eighty Six Acres and a Quarter of Waste and Un- 
granted Land Situate Lying and being in the County 
of Augusta and on the Lost River or Cacapehon and 
Bounded as followeth Beginning at three Pines on 
very Hilly Ground and on the West Side the River 
and Runs thence S 62 E fc Three hundred Poles to 
three white Oaks on the brake of the Mountains 
thence S 28 W l Two hundred and Six Poles to two 
Black Oaks & a Dogwood thence N 62 W 1 Three 
hundred Poles to two white Oaks and a Hickory 
Saplins on the Side of very Hilly Ground thence N 
28 E Two hundred and Six Poles to the Beginning 
this third Day of November 1749 
11 



82 Journal. 

November < h 1 749 Then Survey d for William 

M c Bride a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted 
Land Scituate in Augusta County and on the Lost 
River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Begin 
ning at three pines Francis M c Brides Corner and runs 
thence with his Lines S 62 E l Three hundred poles to 
three white Oaks another of his Corners thence N 
28 E i Two hundred and Six Pole to three white 
Oakes thence N 62 W l Three hundred poles to two 
pines & a red Oak On a steep Hill from thence to 
the Begining 
E 

Plat drawn 
JOHN DONBARR M : 

November 4 th 1749 Then Survey d for Ann Dun- 
barr a certain Tract of Waste Land Scituate in Au 
gusta County and on the Lost River of Cacapehon 
and bounded as followeth Beginning at a Pine and 
white Oak pretty High up a Mountain Side and run 
ning thence S 65 E fc Three hundred Poles to a white 
Oak Chesnut Oak and Maple on the Mountain Side 
near a Drain thence N 25 E l with the Mountain 
Two hundred and twenty Poles to three white Oak 
Saplins by a Runside thence N 65 W fc Two hundred 
and twenty Poles to a red Oak and Pine on the Creek 
Side thence up the Mountain Side far enough to make 
out three hund d Poles from thence to the Beginning 

E Plat drawn 

JOHN DONBARR M. 



Joiirnal. 83 

November 5 th 1749 Then Surveyd for M r John 
Ellswick a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted 
Land Situate in Augusta County on the Waters of 
Cacapehon and bounded as followeth Beginning at 
three white Oakes Corner to M rs Ann Dunbarr and 
running thence along the Mountain side N 25 E* 
One hundred Poles to three white Oaks in very Stony 
ground thence bearing more to the Mountain N 50 
E* One hundred and twenty Poles to two Chesnuts 
and one Chesnut Oak near the side of some Large 
hanging Rocks on the side of a Mountain thence N 
65 W* Three hundred Poles to three white Saplins 
in the Hollow of a the Mountains near the Road that 
leads to the S Branch thence S 38 W* One hundred 
and twenty poles to Dunbarr s Corner on the Moun 
tain thence with his Line S 65 E Three hundred 
pole to the B. 

E 

Plat drawn 
Jos" How M. 

Survey d For James Scott Three hundred and 
Eighty Six Acres and a Quarter of Waste and Un 
granted Land Situate Lying and being in the County 
of Augusta and on the Lost River or Cacapehon and 
Bounded as followeth Beginning at a Pine a Spruce 
Pine and Spanish Oak by the side of some Large 
Rocks on the East Side the River and Runs thence 
N 55 W Three hundred Poles to three Chesnut 
Oaks on Short Hills thence over the Hills N 35 E 



84 Journal. 

Two hundred and Six Poles to a Large white Oak on 
the Hills or Ridges from the Mountains thence S 
55 E l Three hundred Poles to a Hickory red Oak 
and Maple on the Mountain Side thence S 35 W l 
Two hundred and Six Poles to the Beginning this 
Sixth Day of November 1749 

November 7 1749 Then Survey d for M r Jos h How 
a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Lying 
in Augusta County and on the Lost River of Caca- 
pehon and bounded as followeth Beg. at a Corner of 
the Land Survey d for James Scott a Hickory red 
Oak and Maple on the Mountain Side and running 
thence along the Mountain N 35 E fc Two hundred 
and Six Poles to two white Oaks and Maple on the 
Mountain thence leaving the Mountain and run thence 
N 55 W 60 p to the Road Three Hundred Poles 
to Red Oak Chesnut Oak and Hickory on a Moun 
tain Side thence S 35 W Two hundred and Six 
poles to a Large white Oak James Scotts Corner 
thence with his line S 55 E l Three hundred poles to 
the Beg : 

E. Plat drawn 

Jos H How: M. 

November 8 th 1749 Then Survey d for Andrew 
Viney a certain Tract of Waste and Ungranted Land 
Situate in Augusta County and on the Lost River of 
Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning at a 
Large white Pine and three Lynn Trees growing from 



Journal. 85 

one Stump & runs thence N 55 W* Three hundred 
Poles to three white Oaks in amongst the Mountains 
thence went to the Beginning and runs S 35 W l Two 
hundred & six poles to a Maple a Lynn and Wild 
Cherry Trees on the Mountain Side just on the Creek 
thence N 55 W* Three hundred Poles to a white Oak 
and a Black & Hie. Oak from thence to his Opposite 
Corner N 35 E i 
E 

Plat drawn 
ANDREW VINEY M 



November ^ th 1749 Then Surveyd for M r Luke 

Collins a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted 
Land Situate in the County s of Augusta and Frede 
rick & on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded 
as followeth Beginning at two Chesnut Oaks and a 
Black and run thence S 55 E* 48 po to Barnaby 
M c Handry s Corner thence with his Line to his Cor 
ner Lynn Maple & Mountain Burch on the Mountain 
thence along the Mountain S 35 W* Two hundred and 
Six po. to two Mountain Burches and a Gum thence 
N 55 W 1 three hund d poles to three white Oaks from 
thence to the Beg : 

Plat drawn 
SAM L M C HANDRY M 



o th 
November y th 1749 Then Survey d for Barnaby 



86 Journal. 

M c Handry a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted 
Land Situate in Frederick County on the Lost River 
of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning 
48 po. below William Bakers Corner 2 Chesnut Oaks 
and a White Oak and runs thence S 55 E l Two 
hundred and fifty two poles to two Mountain Burches 
and a white Oak on the M side thence S 35 W 1 
Two hundred and fifty two po to a Lynn a Maple 
and a Mountain Burch thence N 55 W l Two hun 
dred and Fifty two po to two white Oaks and a Hick 
ory from thence to the Beginning 

Plat drawn 
WILLIAM BAKER M 

November th 1749 Then Surveyd for William 

Baker a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land 
Situate in Frederick County & on the Lost River of 
Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning at 
two Chesnut Oaks and a red Oak in amongst very 
steep pine Hills Sam 1 Bakers Corner and runs then 
with his Line S 55 E l Three hund d Poles to two 
Mountain Burches and a Chesn Oak on the M : th : 
al B the Mountain S 55 W l Two hund d & Six poles 
to two Mountain Burches and a white Oak thence 
N 55 W Three hundred poles to two Chesnut Oaks 
& a white Oak from th. to the Beg 

Plat drawn 
SAM L BAKER 

November io th 1749 Then Survey d for Samuel 



Journal. 87 

Baker a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land 
Situate in Frederick County and on the Lost River 
of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning 
at two white Oaks near very Large Rocks and runs 
thence N 55 W 1 Three Hundred Poles to two white 
Oaks and a Black on the Short Hills thence went 
Back to the Beginning and S 25 W Two hundred 
and fifteen Poles to a Chesnut Oak and two Mountain 
Burches thence N 55 W fc Three hundred poles to 
two Chesnut Oaks and a red Oak 

Plat drawn 
SAM L BAKER M 

November u th 1749 Then Surveyd for William 
Warden a certain Tract of waste and ungranted Land 
Situate in Frederick County and on the Lost River 
of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning 
at two Hickorys and an Elm on the Creek side and 
runs thence S 70 W 1 Two hund d & twelve Poles to a 
Spanish Oak a Chesnut & a Maple thence N 20 W: 
Three hundred poles to a Chesnut Oak a white Oak 
and Pine thence N 80 E 4 Two hund d and twelve p os 
and from thence to the Beginning 
Plat drawn 

SAM L BAKER M : 

March 3o th 1750. 

Then Survey d for David Edwards a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County and on Cacapehon and bounded as followeth 



88 Journal. 

Beg: at a white Oak Jos h Edwards Cor: on the E l 
side the River & run thence N 70 W l 176 po to the 
Creek 253 Po to another of J. Edwards s Cor s and 
three hund d & twenty Poles to three black Oaks near 
a Large Pine on the Top of a Hill thence N 20 E l 
Two hund d Poles to four Pines on the side of a steep 
Hill thence S 70 E l Three hundred & Forty Poles 
to an Ash on the Creek side near a fine spring thence 
to the Beg K 412 Acres 
Plat drawn 

JOHN LONEM j -, 
SILVENUS SMITH [ 
DAVID EDWARDS M r 

March 3o th 1750 

Then Survey d for Thorn 5 Edwards a 
certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County and on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth 
Beg K at 2 Pines on the side of a Mountain about 4 
Pole from the Waggon Road that leads to the S 
Branch and on the W* Side the Creek & run thence 
East One hund d Pole to the Creek & three hund and 
twenty Poles to a Red Oak white Oak and Hickory 
on the side of a steep Hill thence South Two hundred 
Poles to three white Oaks thence West 20 Po: to the 
Creek Three hundred & twenty Poles to a white Oak 
thence North Two hundred Poles to the Beg. con 
taining four hund d acres 

JOHN LONEM ) ^ 7 
v. T- > C /ia : 

DAVID EDWARDS j 

GEORGE HYATT Plat drawn 



Journal. 89 

March 3i st 1750 

Then Survey d for George Hyatt a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate on a branch of the 
N River calld Davids Run in Frederick County Beg 
at 2 white Oaks on the side of a Hill in very stony 
ground and Run thence S 70 E* One hund d & Sev 
enty two Poles to a Chesnut Oak amongst a Parcel 
of Rocks on a Ridge of a Mountain thence N 20 
E l . . 220 Po to the Wag n Road that leads to the S 
Branch Two hund d and Fifty Poles to a Hickory & 
two white Oaks thence N 70 W* One hund d & Sev 
enty two Poles to two white Oaks on a Hill thence 
S 20 W fc Two hund d & Fifty three Po: to ds Beg ff 
Cont ff 272 Acres 

Plat drawn 

JOHN LONEM \ C M 
DAVID EDWARDS ) 
GEORGE HYATT: Mark r . 

March 3i st 1750 

Then Survey d for John Parkes Jun r 
a certain Tract of Waste Land Lying & Situate in 
Frederick County & on a branch of Cacapehon & 
bounded as followeth beginning at two Chesnut Oaks 
near a Drain of the Mountains that parts a Ridge of 
Rocks & run thence S E r . .Two hund d Poles to three 
white Oaks at the foot of a mountain thence N E fc . . 
Two hund Poles to three white Oaks at the foot of 
the s d Mountain thence N W 1 Two hund d Poles to 
three Pines on the same Ridge we began at thence 



90 Journal. 

S W* Along the Ridge Two hund d Poles to the Beg: 
containing 250 Acres Plat drawn 

JOHN LONEM \ C M 
DAVID EDWARDS j 
JOHN PARKES Mark r 

April 2 d 1750 

Then Survey cl for Even Pugh a cer 
tain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in 
Frederick County on the Trout Run a branch of Ca- 
capehon & bounded as followeth beg* at a white Oak 
& two Poplars stand 8 on the Run & Run thence S 
85 E l Three hun d and twenty Poles to two red Oaks 
two Gums & a Maple thence N 40 W Three hund d 
& twenty Poles to a white Oak from thence to the 

Beg: S 27 W l 244 Po. Con* 226 

Plat drawn 
DAVID EDWARDS 
JOSEPH POWELL 
EVAN PUGH JUN R Mark 

April 2 d 1750 

Then Survey d for Jacob Pugh a cer 
tain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick County 
and on a branch of Cacapehon calld Trout Run beg g 
at a Poplar and black Walnut on Evan Pugh s Line 
on the branch and Run thence N 50 E fc One hund d 
& Sixty Poles to two white Oaks in a Bottom thence 
S 40 E l Two hund d and twenty Poles to three white 
Oaks thence S 50 W 1 One hund d & Sixty Poles to 
two red Oaks two Gums & a Maple Evan Pughs 



JOSEPH POWELL j 



Journal. 9 1 

Corner thence with his Line N 40 W 1 Two hund d 
and twenty Poles to the beg g containing 220 Acres 

Plat drawn 

DAVID EDWARDS ) ^ ^ 
JOSEPH POWELL j 
EVAN PUGH JUN R M r 

April 2 d 1750 

Then Survey d for Joseph Powell a cer 
tain Tract of Waste & ungranted Land Situate in 
Frederick C: & on a branch of Cacapehon calld 
Trouts Run beg g at two white Oaks in a bottom 
Jacob Pughs Corner and run thence with his Line 
S 40 E 1 Two hund d & twenty Poles to three white 
Oaks another of J Pughs Corner s thence N 50 E fc 
One hund d & Sixty Poles to three white Oaks thence 
N 40 W fc Two hund d & twenty Poles to two Pines 
thence S 40 W* One hund d & Sixty Poles to the Beg: 
Containing 220 Acres Plat drawn 

JACOB PUGH ) c M 
EVAN PUGH j c 
JOSEPH POWELL M 

April 2 d 1750 

Then Survey d for Thorn 8 Hughs a 
certain Tract of Waste & ungran d Land Situate in 
Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bound d as fol- 
loweth beg : at a red Oak & white Oak at the foot 
of a steep Mountain and run thence N 25 W t One 
hund d and Seventy 4. Poles to an Elm & red Oak 
Saplins thence N 45 W . . . Three hund d & Forty 



92 Journal. 

Poles to two Pines on a Ridge thence N 75 E l Two 
hund d Poles to two red Oaks in the bottom thence S 
25 E l Three hund cl & forty Poles to three white Oaks 
near the lick Branch thence to the beg. Con g 419 
Acres Plat drawn 

JACOB PUGH \ c . M 
EVAN PUGH j 
WILLIAM HUGH S M r 

April 3 d 1750 

Then Survey d for Hugh Hughs a cer 
tain Tract of waste & ungranted Land Situate lying 
& being in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & 
bounded as followeth beginning at two swamp white 
Oaks standing under a steep hill & run thence N 75 
W Four hund d & twenty Poles to two Pines and a 
Chesnut Oak on the Ridge of a Mountain thence S 
17 W l Two hund d Poles to two white Oaks thence S 
73 E l at 72 p came to a black in thorn 5 Hughs s Line 
about 80 po: from his corner at 192 Po came to three 
white Oaks in another Line of Th s Hughs s four 
hund d and twenty Poles to three white Oaks from 
thence to the beg g Con g 480 Acres 

Plat drawn 
JOHN LONEM ) r M 
Jos" POWELL j ( 
WILLIAM HUGHS M r 

April 3 d 1750 

Then Survey d for William Hughs Senior 
a certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 



Journal. 93 

County and on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth 
beg. at two swamp white Oaks hugh Hughs Corner & 
run thence N 17 E fc Two hund d Poles to three white 
Oaks near the Creek thence N 73 W l Three hund d 
and twenty Poles to three Pines on the side of a 
Mountain thence S 17 W 1 . .Two hund d Poles to the 
beg : containing 400 Acres 

Plat drawn 

JOHN LONEM \ r M 
JOSEPH POWELL j 
ELIAS HUGHS M r 

April 4 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for William Hughs Jun r 
a certain Tract of Waste & ungranted Land Situate 
lying and being in Frederick County & on Cacapehon 
& bounded as followeth beg at three white Oaks & 
run thence N 73 W l 40 Pole to William Hughs Sen r 
Corner Three hund d & twenty Poles to a stake thence 
N 35 E i Two hund d & twenty Poles to three Gums 
in a Drain of the Mountain thence S 73 E 1 Three 
hund d & Eighty Poles to two white Walnuts thence 
to the beg S 47 W* 245 Po Con g 460 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 

EVAN PUGH 

ELIAS HUGHS M r 

April 4 th 1750 Plat drawn - 

Then Survey d for Nicholas Robinson a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth 



94 Journal. 

beginning at two white red Oaks about two pole 
below a spring & under a mountain & clift of Rocks 
& run thence S 45 E l Two hund d & sixty Six Pole 
thence S 45 W l Two hund 1 & Forty Pole thence N 
45 W l Two hund d Sixty Six Pole to 2 Pines & i 
White Oak thence N 45 E 1 Two hund d & Forty 
Poles to the beg: Containing 400 Acres 

JOHN LONEM - \ c M 
SAMUEL BROWN j 
NICHOLAS ROBINSON M r 

April 5 th i 750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for William Henry Wei- 
ton a certain Tract of 390 Acres of waste and un- 
granted Land Situate in Frederick County & on 
Cacaphon & bounded as followeth beg. at two white 
Oaks & a black Oak John Woodfins beg : Corner & 
run thence S 50 W l Two hund d Poles to two Pines 
high on a mountain Side thence S 35 E* Two hund d 
& Sixty Poles to three white Oaks in William Hughs 
Jun r Line thence with his Line S 73 E l 100 Pole to 
two white Walnuts under a clift of Rocks on the 
Creek William Hughs corner thence I Went back to 
the beg. & run with Woodfins Line S 20 E fc Eighty 
Six Po: crossing Cacapehon to a red oak & white 
Walnut thence S E l One hund d & sixty one Pole to 
a white Oak near y e foot of a hill then close the Line 
The above Plat begins at Woodfins Cor r & run 
N W l 

JOHN LONEM \ C M 

SAMUEL WOODFIN j 1 JOHN WELTON 



Journal. 95 

April 5 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Edward Kinnison 
Jun r a certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Fred 
erick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth 
beg. at two red Oaks N. Rob n Corner about 2 Pole 
below a Spring & run thence S 45 E fc Three hund d 
& Twenty Poles thence N 45 E fc two hund d Poles 
thence N 45 W l Three hund d & Forty Po. to two 
white Oaks under a mountain & clift of Rocks thence 
to the beg. 
JOHN LONEM ) r M 
SAM L BROWN j C * 1 
EDWARD KINNISON M r 

April 5 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for John Lonem a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate Lying & being in 
Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as 
followeth beg: at two white Oaks under a clift of 
Rocks Edward Kinnison s Corner & run thence N 
37 E Two hund d & forty Poles to two hickorys & 
white Oak on a Mountain Side thence S 53 E 1 Two 
hund d & forty Poles thence S 38 W fc 274 Po. to In 
tersect Kinnison N W fc Line thence N W fc 240 to the 
beg ng Con g - 390 Acres 
JOHN LONEM ) ^ Jt , ,, 
W BROWN } CA " Men 
NICHOLAS ROBINSON M 

April io th 1750 Plat drawn. 

Then Surveyd for Darby M c Keaver 



96 Journal. 

Sen r81 a certain Tract of waste & ungranted Land 
situate Lying & being in Frederick County and on 
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at One white 
Oak & two hickorys John Lonems Corner & run 
thence N 37 E l Two hund d and twenty Poles to 2 
Pines & a black Oak on a steep Mountain side thence 
S 53 E l Three hund d Poles to two white Oaks & a 
Pine thence S 37 W l Two hund d & twenty Poles 
from thence S 53 W l 60 Po to John Lonem s Corner 
Three hund d Poles to the beg. Con s 41 2 \ Acres 

JOHN LOXEM \c M 
DAVID EDWARDS j 
JAMES DILOUZA M r 

81 The following is copied from a patent for land granted to 
Darby McKeaver, Sr., recorded at Winchester, Frederick Co., 
Va. The survey was made by George Washington, but it is 
not contained in the field note book of surveys of " My Jour 
ney over the Mountain," we quote: ; Granted by Right Hou 
Thomas Lord Fairfax of Cameron to Darby McKeaver Elder 
of Frederick Co. Virginia. Bounded by survey of a tract in 
s d County on Great Cacapon made by Mr George Washington. 
Beginning at two Hickorys & a white Oak John Lonem s Cor 
ner, thence N 37 E. Two hundred and twenty poles to two 
Pines & a Black Oak on the side of a steep mountain, thence 
S. 53, E. Three hundred poles to two White Oaks & a Pine S. 
37 W. Two hundred & twenty Poles, Thence N. 53, W Sixty 
Poles to John Lonem s Corner Three hundred poles to the be 
ginning, containing Four hundred and twelve and a half acres. 

Patent granted October 7 th 25 th year of the Reign of 
George Second." 

April io th 1750- -this Car d to Fo 82 

Then surveyd for Darby M c Keaver 
Jun r a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Fred- 



Journal. 97 

erick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as fol- 
loweth beg: at a red Oak & Pine about a Mile & 
quarter below his other Survey and Run thence S 53 
E l One hund d Poles to 2 white Oaks thence S 20 E i 
Two hund d & thirty eight Poles to a Spanish Oak 
white Oak & hickory thence S 37 W ninety two 
Poles to 2 Pines & a white Oak thence N 53 W l 
Three hund d Poles to three Pines from thence to the 
beg. 

JOHN LONEM \ C M 
DAVID EDWARDS j 
JAMES DILOUZA 



82 This survey has a cross drawn over its face and the follow 
ing words added after the date : this Car d to F 82. It is prob 
able that some error had discovered itself when an attempt 
was made to draw a plat by the metes and bounds as given. 
As this illustrates Washington s careful attention to details, it 
is given just as he left it. 

April io th 1750 

Then Surveyd the vacant Lot betwixt 
Darby M c Keaver and Son in Frederick County & on 
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at 3 Pines 
Sons Corner near the Mountain & Run thence S 37 
W* Two hund d & ninety Six Pole to Darbys Line & 
twenty Pole from the Corner then went to the Corner 
& run with his Line S 53 E* & so Round y e whole 
binding on their Lines & Corners 

JOHN LONEM \r M 
DAVID EDWARDS j 

13 



98 Journal. 

April n th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for John Parke Sen r a 
certain Tract of waste Land situate in Frederick 
County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: 
at two Pines on a Mountain Side & run thence S 57 
E l Three hund d & twenty Poles to a Pine & two 
hickory bushes on the Top of a clear hill thence S 
33 W 1 Two hund d Poles to 2 white Oaks in Level 
ground thence N 57 W l 200 Pole to the Creek Three 
hund d & twenty Poles from thence to the beg 
JOHN LONEM ) 
SILVENUS SMITH j 
RICH D ARNOLD SEN R 

April n th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Richard Arnold Jun r 
a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: 
at a black Oak & hickory at the foot of a Mountain 
& run thence S 57 E l Three hund d & twenty Poles 
to 2 Pines & a Spanish thence S 33 W l Two hund d 
Pole to a hickory black Oak & white Oak thence N 
57 W 1 Three hund d & twenty Poles to two white Oaks 
from thence to the beg: 
JOHN LONEM 
SILVENUS SMITH 
RICHARD ARNOLD JUN R 

April n th 1750 

Then Survey d for M r Joseph Edwards 
a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 



Journal. 99 

County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: 
at a black Oak & hickory at the foot of a Mountain 
Richard Arnold s Corner & run thence with his Line 
S 57 E l Three hund d & twenty Poles to a Pine & 2 
Spanish Oaks another of Arnolds Corner s thence N 
33 E l Two hund d Poles to three white Oaks by a 
small branch near a Path thence N. 57 W l Three 
hund d & twenty Poles to two white Oaks on the 
Mountain side thence to the beg 
JOHN LONEM ) 
SILVENUS SMITH j 
RICHARD ARNOLD SEN R 

April 12 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for James Caudy 83 a certain 
Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick County & 
on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg at a white 
Oak on the East Side the Creek a Corner of his 
Patent Land & run thence S 53 E 4 200 Po : to a white 
Oak on a Level near the Waggon Road another of 
his Corners thence S 37 W 1 Ninety Six Poles to a 
white Oak in Jos h Edwards Line thence with his Line 
N 57 W no Po. Jos h Edwards Corner thence to y e 
beg containing 98 Acres 
JOHN LONEM ) 
SYLVENUS SMITH J 
RICH D ARNOLD JUN R 

83 One of the natural curiosities of West Virginia is 
" Gaudy s Castle," named presumably for this individual, who, 
Kercheval says, had taken refuge from the Indians on the sum 
mit of a stupendous detached rock standing out from a precipi 
tous mountain side and having an elevation of several hundred 
feet. It is situated a couple of miles above the forks of Capon. 



i oo Journal. 

April 12 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Thomas Parker Sen r 
a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on the N River of Cacapehon & bounded 
as followeth beg at 2 white Oaks on y e W. side the 
Creek & Run thence N 36 W l Two hund d Pole to 
a Hickory & black Oak in the bent of the Creek th : 
S 54 W l Two hund d Pole to two Pines on a Stony & 
Piney Point thence S 62 W l Eighty four Poles to a 
white Oak & maple on y e Creek thence S 30 W l One 
hund d & Eighty Poles to 3 Pines & a white Oak in 
flat Level Ground from thence to the beg. N 38 E l 
220 Con g 237 Acres 
JOHN LONEM \ 

RICH D ARNOLD SEN R j 
BARNABY LYNCH - 

April 13 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Evan Pugh Jun r a 
certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County on a very small branch & bounded as followeth 
beg at 3 white Oaks on a Stony Ridge & run th : S 
60 E 1 One hund d & Sixty Po : to two Chesnut Oaks 
& a Pine th : N 30 E 1 One hund d & Sixty Pole to two 
red Oaks & a white Oak thence N 60 W l One hund d 
& Sixty Pole to a Ches 1 Oak & black Oak on a Rocky 
Ridge thence S 30 W One hund d & Sixty Pole to 
the beg: Con g 160 
JOHN LONEM 
JAMES THOMAS 
JACOB PUGH : 



Journal. 101 

April 13 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Benjamin Phipps a 
certain Tract of Waste & ungranted Land Situate in 
Frederick County & on the North River of Cacapehon 
& bounded as followeth beg: at a white red & Chesnut 
Oaks on y e west side the River & run thence N 26 
W fc Three hund d & twenty Poles to three Pine Saplins 
in very hilly Ground thence S 64 W fc Twohund d Pole 
to three white Oaks on the Top of a Mountain thence 
S 26 E 1 Three hund d & twenty Poles to 3 white Oaks 
in a hollow th: to the beg 

JOHN LONEM \ C- M 

AARON ASHBROOK J J 
BENJAMIN PHIPPS Mark. 

April 14 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for George Nickson a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on the N River of Cacapehon & bounded 
as followeth beg. at 3 red Oaks on the River Side & 
W 1 side & run thence N 60 W 1 Three hund d & twenty 
Poles to 2 Black Oaks & a Pine thence S 30 W* Two 
hundred Poles to a white Oak & Pine in the fork of 
three hollows thence S 60 E* Three hund d & twenty 
Pole to two Pines 20 Po x 84 y e Creek thence N 30 E* 
Two hund d Poles to the beg: containing 400 Acres 

JOHN LONEM \ r M 
JAMES SMITH j 
GEORGE NICKSON M r 

84 x I think he means across. 



IO2 Journal. 

April 14 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Josiah Arnold a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick County 
& on the N River of Cacapehon & bounded as fol- 
loweth beg: at a red Oak near a great Rock on the 
East side y e River & run thence N 48 W l Three 
hund d & twenty Poles to two Pines thence N 42 E l 
Two hund 11 Pole thence S 48 E l Three hund d Poles 
to the Creek Three hund d & twenty Poles to 2 Lynn 
Trees & a Maple thence S 42 W l to the beg: contain 
ing 400 Acres 
JQHN LONEM ) 
JAMES SMITH j 
JOSIAH ARNOLD 

April 14 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for James Smith a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick County 
& on the N River of Cacapehon & bounded as fol- 
loweth beg: at a hickory & Walnut on y e Creek Side 
& west Side & opposite against a Pavement of Rocks 
& run thence N 48 W l Three hund d & twenty Poles 
to 2 Pines amongst steep Hills thence N 42 E 1 200 
Pole to 2 Pines thence S 48 E l Three hund d & 
twenty Poles to 2 Pines on a Mountain Side thence 
S 42 W 1 200 Pole to the Beg: Containing 400 
Acres 

JOHN LONEM ) 
GEORGE NICKSON j 
JAMES SMITH 



Journal. 103 

April 1 6 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for John Stackhouse a 
certain Tract of Waste & ungranted Land Situate in 
Frederick County & on the N River of Cacapehon 
& bounded as followeth beg at a Large white Oak & 
hickory on the E 4 side the River & run thence N 45 
W 1 Three hund d & five Pole thence S W l Two hund d 
& Ten Pole thence S E Three hund d & five Pole to 
two white Oaks in a small Island under the foot of a 
Mountain thence N E i Two hund d &ten Pole to the 
beg. Containing 400 Acres 
JOHN LONEM | 
JAMES SMITH j " 
JOHN STACKHOUSE 

April 1 6 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for James Warden the 
Vacant Land situate in Augusta County & between 
y e Lines of Andrew Viney & Luke Collins on the 
Lost River & bounded as followeth beg: at 3 white 
Oaks amongst Piney Hills Luke Collins s Corner & 
run thence with his Line S 55 E* Three hund d Poles 
to two Mountain Burches & a Gum on a steep Moun. 
side thence S 35 W fc One hund d & Seventy Six Pole 
to a Large white Pine & three Lynn Trees growing 
from one Stump And w Vineys Corner thence with his 
Line N 55 W 1 Three hund d Poles to three white 
Oaks in amongst y e Mountains another of V. Corners 
thence to y e beg Con g 330 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
JAMES SCOTT 



1 04 Journal. 

April 1 6 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d the Waste Land for 
Francis M c Bride & Robert Denton between their 
Lines beg: at 2 Pines & a Spanish Oak on the left 
side the River run thence N 28 E l 128 Pole to 
Frank M c Brides Line thence up his Line to his Cor. 
ner N 62 W l 72 Pole to M c Brides Corner 2 white 
Oaks & a hickory 

when plotted of is from Dentons 
Corner to M c Brides, North 148 thence around with 
there Lines containing 244 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
DANIEL LIZENBY 
ROB T DENTON 

April 1 8 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for David Dunbar a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate in Augusta County 
& on Cacapehon bounded as followeth beg at a 
white Oak Chesnut Oak Maple Corner to Ann 
Dunbar run thence S 25 W l Two hund d Poles to 
3 white Oaks thence N 65 W fc Three hund d Eighty 
Poles to 3 white Oaks at the foot of a Mountain 
thence to John Dunbar corner from thence with his 
Line to y beg Cont R 425 Acres this Plat beg: at John 
Dunbar s beg. Corner 
JOHN LONEM 
DANIEL LIZENBY 
WILLIAM WARDEN 



Journal. 105 

April 19 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for William Miller Horse 
Jockey a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Au 
gusta County & on the Lost River of Cacapehon & 
bounded as followeth beg at a white Oak & Spruce 
Pine Edward Hogan s Corner & Run thence S 10 
W l Two hund d & twenty Poles to 3 white Oaks on 
the Edge of the bottom thence S 68 E l Two hund d 
& Eighty Poles to 2 Chesnut Oaks & a hickory on a 
Mountain Side thence N 10 E fc Two hund d & twenty 
Poles to another of Hogan s Corners thence with his 
Line to the beg Con* 380 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
DAN L LIZENBY 
WILLIAM MILLER 

April 19 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for James Thomas a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate in Augusta County 
and on the Lost River or Cacapehon & bounded as 
followeth beg at two white Oaks by a small branch & 
run thence S 65 E fc Three hund d Pole to 2 white 
Oaks good way on the Mountain side thence N 25 
E* Two hund d Pole to an hickory Maple & Ash on a 
Rocky Run thence N 65 W 1 Three hund d Poles to 3 
Pines then S 25 W l Two hund d Poles to the beg 
Con g 375 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
WILLIAM MILLER 
ROBERT DENTON 
14 



1 06 Journal. 

April 20 th i 750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for James Dilouza a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick County 
& on a branch of the N Branch of Cacapehon & 
bounded as followeth beg: at a Chesnut Oak white 
Oak & hickory on a hill near the Mountain Side & 
run thence N 52 W l Two hund d & fifty two Poles to 
a white Oak & black Oak thence S 38 W l Two hund d 
& fifty two Poles to 3 Spanish Oaks on y e Mountain 
Side thence S 52 E 1 Two hund (1 & fifty two Poles to 
3 Spanish Oaks on a Mountain Side thence to y e beg: 
Cont* 397 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
JAMES WARDEN 
JAMES DILOUZA 

April 20 th i 750 Drawn 

Then Surveyd for David Wood a certain 
Tract of waste & ungranted Land Situate in Augusta 
County & on y e N River of Cacapehon & bounded 
as followeth beg : at a hickory & Walnut against a 
Pavement of Rocks James Smiths Corner & Run 
thence S 42 W l two hund d Pole to a white Oak & 
hickory on y e , west side y e Creek thence N 48 W l 

have recourse to y e returnd Survey 85 
JOHN LONEM 
JOHN STACKHOUSE 
DANIEL WOOD 
85 This line is written in pencil. 



Journal. 107 

April 20 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Jonathan Arnold a 
certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on y e N River of Cacapehon & bounded 
as followeth beg: at a white Oak & hickory on y e E 
side y e River David Woods Corner & Run thence 
with his Line N 48 W Three hund d & twenty Poles 
to his corner thence S 42 W l Two hund d Pole thence 
S 48 E fc Three hund d & twenty Poles to 2 Pines 
thence N 42 E 1 200 po 86 to y e beg : Contain* 400 
Acres 

320 N 48 W* 320^1 

200 S 42 W* 200 I 86 

S 48 E< 320 f 

6400 ^400 N 42 E l 200 J 

640 

JOHN LONEM 

JOHN STACKHOUSE 

JONATHAN ARNOLD 

86 The last line and the record of courses and distances and 
the figuring are in pencil. 



April 2i st 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Robert Lindsay a 
certain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on y e N River of Cacapehon & bounded 
as followeth beg : at 3 white Oaks & on y e foot of a 
Mountain & run thence N 48 W* Three hund d & 
twenty Poles to thence N 42 E i Two hund d Poles 
thence S 48 E 1 Three hund d & twenty Poles to a 



io8 Journal. 

forked Pine & white Oak thence S 42 W l Two hund d 
Poles to y e beg : containing 400 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
JOHN STACKHOUSE 
JONATHAN ARNOLD 

April 23 d 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Henry Enoch a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate at y e Fork of Caca- 
pehon & bounded as followeth beg. at 2 red Oaks 
near y e Cacapehon & Run thence N 12 E l Two hund d 
Poles to red Oak & Spanish Oak on y e side of a steep 
Hill thence N 78 W 100 Pole to y e Creek Two 
hund d & Seventy Poles to 2 white Oaks & a red Oak 
thence S 12 W l 200 Po to y e N River Two hund d 
& Sixty Poles to 2 white Oaks & a hickory thence to 
y e beg: S 78 W l 275 Poles Con^ 388 Acres 
JOHN LONEM j_ 
JOHN KEITH ) 
JOHN CONSTANT 

April 23 d 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for John Newton a certain 
Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick County & 
on y e N River about a Mile above y e Fork and 
bounded as followeth beg : at 2 white Oaks & a 
hickory Henry Enocks s Corner & run thence with 
his Line N 12 E l Two hund d & Sixty Poles to 
another of Enocks Corners 2 white Oaks & red Oak 
thence West Two hund d Poles to 2 hickorys & a Pine 



Journal. 109 

thence S 12 W fc Two hund d & Sixty Poles to 2 Pines 
in clear Ground thence East 200 to y e beg : at 50 Po 
came to y e N River Con R 315 Acres 
JOHN LONEM \ r n/r 
JOHN KEITH [ L A 
JOHN CONSTANT Marker 

April 24 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Thomas Wiggans a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on Potomack River about \ Mile above 
y e Mouth of great Cacapehon & bounded as followeth 
beg: at a white Oak a white Hickory & white Wood 
Tree just on y e Mouth of Wiggan s Run & opposite 
to a nob of y e Mountains in Maryland & run thence 
S 25 W* Two hund d & twenty Eight Poles to a white 
hickory an Elm & Mulberry about 30 Pole from Ca 
capehon thence N 75 W fc One hund d & forty Poles 
to a Chesnut Oak & white Oak thence N 25 E t Two 
hund d & Sixty Poles to a white Oak red Oak & Iron 
Wood on y e Riverside thence down y e several Mean 
ders thereof S 67^ E i 37 Po S 58^ E t 74 Po S 55 
E 1 to y e beg Con g 210 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
ISAAC DAWSON 
WILLIAM WIGGANS 

April 24 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Than Survey d for Isaac Dawson a cer 
tain Tract of waste Land Situate Lying & being in a 



1 1 o Journal. 

Neck of Land between Cacapehon & Potomack 
River & bounded as followeth beg at a white Oak 
white hickory & white Wood tree Thorn 5 Wiggans 
Cor. & run thence with his Line S 25 W l Onehund d 
& Eighty two Poles to a Walnut & hickory in T s 
Wiggans Line thence S 75 E l twenty Pole to 2 white 
Oaks on y e Creekside thence y e several Meanders 
thereof N 69 E i Thirty six po S 6oi E l 62 Po; S 
4oi E l 56, S 26 E l One hund d & twelve Po, S 59 
E l fifty four Po., N 38 E 1 Seventy two Pole, N 28 
E l Thirty eight, P N 2 W l 44 Po; N 56^ W l 50 
N 40 W l 44 Po, N 51 W 26 Po N 42 W l 52 Po. 
S ioi E l 42 to y e Mouth of y e Creek thence up y e 
Meanders of y e River N 71 W l 92 Po N 45 W t 30 
Po. to y e beg. Con g 270 Acres - 
JOHN LONEM 
WILLIAM WIGGANS 
ISAAC DAWSON- 

April 24 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Thorn 8 Williams a 
certain Tract of waste L d Situate just below y e Mouth 
of y e Caca & on Potomack River & bounded as fol 
loweth beg: at a Maple & Sugar at y e Mouth of y e 
Creek & Run y e Meanders of y e River S 79 E 1 90 Po 
S 70 E l 50 Pole to a White Oak & Sugar tree grow 
ing together at y e Top by y e Mouth of a gully thence 
leaving y e River & Run thence S i W 1 One hund d 
& fifteen Po th S 72 W l 28 Po to y e C k & op e to 
Dawson s C: y e two last Courses down y e Creek are 



Journal. 1 1 1 

N 42 W fc 35 P N 17 E t 52 P to y e beg Con* 95 

Ac s 

JOHN LONEM 

WILLIAM WIGGANS 

THOM S WILLIAMS 

April 25 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Nicholas Friend a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate on Potomack 
River about 2 Miles below y e Mouth of Little Caca- 
pehon & bounded as followeth beg at 2 hickorys & a 
Sugar Tree at y e Mouth of a Run on y e River brink 
& run thence S 55 E fc Sixty Pole to two Pines on y e 
top of a Ridge thence S 35 W l One hund d & Sixty 
Poles to 2 white Oaks & an ash about 18 Pole x y e 
Run we began at thence N 55 W* One hund d & thirty 
Pole to 2 Sycamores on y e River Side thence down 
y e Meanders of y e River N 4 W l fifty four Po. N 
28 E< forty Po. N 70 E twenty Six Po. N 75 E t 
Twenty one Po. N 79^ E t Thirty Poles S 80 E l 72 
Po. to y e beg. Con R 142 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
SAMUEL PLUMB 
JOHN FRIEND 

April 25 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Friend Cox a certain 
Tract of waste L d Situate in Frederick Co ty & on 
Potomack & Little Cacapehon & bounded as follow 
eth beg. at 2 hickorys & a Spanish Oak at y e Mouth 
of Little Cacapehon & y e lower Side & run thence y e 



1 1 2 Journal. 

Meanders of y e River N 84 E l thirty Pole S 86 E l 
Twenty Eight Pole N 65 E l 68 Pole East forty Pole 
to 2 Burches thence leaving y e River S 10 E* Two 
hund d & forty Poles Run S 80 W l One hund (1 & thirty 
Poles to y e Creek then N 22 W l Sixty Pole N 45^ 
W l 100 Po N 12 E l 30 N 39 E l 16 Po N 15 W l 56 
Po to y e beg Con K 240 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
JOHN PARKER 
RICH U LANE 

April 26 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for John Parker of S 
Br ch a certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Fred 
erick & on Little Cacapehon & about \ Mile above 
y e Buffalo Lick & bounded as followeth beg: at a 
white Oak & red Oak on y e hillside & Run thence 
S 50 E Two hund d Pole thence S 40 W l One hund d 
& Sixty Pole thence N 50 W 1 Two hund d Pole to a 
black Oak Spanish Oak & white Oak thence N 40 
E l One hund d & Sixty Poles to y e Beg: Containing 
200 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
HENRY ENOCH 
JOHN PARKER 

April 27 th 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Silvenus Smith a 
certain Tract of waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: 
at a hickory black Oak And white Oak Rich d Arnolds 



Journal. 113 

Corner & run thence with his Line N 57 W fc Three 
hund d & twenty Poles to 2 white Oaks another of 
Arnolds Corners thence S 33 W fc One hund d & 
twenty four Poles to 2 Pines John John Parke Sen r 
Corner thence with Parke s Line S 57 E* Three 
hund d & twenty Poles to a Pine & two hickorys an 
other of Parke s Corner thence to y e beg : find y e 
Course & Quantity 87 
JOHN LONEM . . . 
RICH D ARNOLD JUN R 
SILVENUS SMITH 

April 27 th 1750 Plat drawn. 

Then Resurveyd Darby M c Keaver s 
Jun r Land beg. at a red Oak & Pine his old Corner 
& Run thence S 53 E* 70 Po to a hickory & black 
Oak on y e Creek Side then up y e Creek S 37 W l 60 
to 2 black Oaks on y e Creek Side thence S 53 E* 230 
Po. to 2 Chesnut Oaks & a black on Piney Ground 
thence S 37 W fc 140 Po to 2 Pines & a white Oak 
thence N 53 W* Three hund d Poles to three Pines 

find y e Course 87 

from thence -*- to y e beg : Con g 315 Acres 
JOHN LONEM 
SILVENUS SMITH 
ROGER PARKES 

87 Interlined in lead pencil. 

April 28 th 1750 Plat drawn. 

Then Surveyd for James M c Cay a cer- 
15 



1 14 Journal. 

tain Tract of Waste Land Situate in Frederick 
County bounded as followeth beg : at 2 white Oaks 
& a Gum in Level L d about 10 Po from y e Waggon 
r d & run thence S 27 W l Three hund d & twenty Po 
to 3 white Oaks thence N 63 W l 30 Po to y e Waggon 
Road that Leads up y e Creek to Woodfins two hund d 
Poles to 2 Chesnut Oaks thence N 27 E l 270 Po to 
y e Wag n Road Three hund d & twenty Poles to 3 
Pines thence S 63 E i Two hund d Pole to y e beg 
Con g 400 
JOHN LONEM 
DAVID EDWARDS 

JAMES M C CAY 

August 1 6 th 1750 Plat drawn. 

N. B. This Plat made to begin at y e Double hick 
ory S iii W* 280 po. 

Then Survey d for M r Edward Musgrove 
a certain Tract of waste & ungranted Land Situate 
in Frederick County & on Shannondoah River & 
joining his Patent Land bounded as followeth Beg. at 
a Corner Stone where his Corner tree stood on the 
River Side & run up the several Courses thereof S 
. . .63.. .W L ..40 poles S..43. .15" W l 60 poles to 
an Ash on the River Corner to William Vestalls 
Patent Land thence with his Lines N 40 W l Eight 
poles to a white Oak Saplin V. C. thence S. . 70 W l 
92 poles to i blacks oak in y e fork of a road thence 
N..3iJ- E l 426 Poles to a Double hic y Corn r to 



Journal. 1 1 5 

Musgroves Pa. L d & y e pat. L d of John Vestall thence 
to y e beg 135 Acres 
REUBEN RUTHERFORD 
JOHN MUSGROVE. . 



I NED MUSGROVE M* 



August 20 th 1 750 Plats drawn 

Then Re Survey d for Richard Stephen- 
son and William Davis a certain tract of waste and 
ungranted Land beg : at i Spanish Oak black Oak & 

white Oak & run thence N 10. . . E 1 Forty three 

poles to a Large hie : in a hallow thence S. . .80 E l 
One hund d poles to a Large white Oak & small hick 
ory in or near y e Old Corner th : S. .37. .E* One 
hund d & Eighty four poles to a Dead white O. & liv 
ing one by a path side thence N. .36. . . . E fc Thirty 
Six poles to a Stoop g white Oak by a path Side Cor 
ner to a tract Survey d for William Davis thence S 
^o-4^ . . . E four hund d and twelve poles to a 
red Oak Another Corner of William Davis s Land in 
Col Geo. Fairfax s Line thence S 41 W fc Three hund d 
& Ninety Eight Poles to a hickory Saplin about 8 
pole x the N Branch of Bullskin 88 thence N..37 
. . . W fc . . .Two hund d & Eighty poles to small hickory 
Saplins about 90 pole from the Corner of the Patent 
Land a broken top d red Oak Pits s Patent thence 
with his Lines N 50 E i Seventy poles to a red Oak 
in Stephensons clear d Ground thence N 5 W 4 242 
p to a Corner- - Two hund d & fifty poles to 2 hick- 
orys thence N^s^W 1 160 po. thence N 85 30 W* 
1 8 ps- to a Large white Oak by a parcel of Rocks 



1 1 6 JoiirnaL 

then reduced to a straight Line is N. . .4o-45 . . W l 
One hund d & Seventy One po thence N. . .80- W l 
Seventy Eight poles to the beg : con g 810 
LEWIS THOMAS } 398 

WILLIAM CRAWFORD j 240 

DANIEL M C KLEDUFF M r . i~58 

88 Bullskin is a small stream which rises within the present 
boundaries of Jefferson county, West Virginia. George Wash 
ington, and also his brothers Lawrence and John Augustine, 
owned large tracts of land in the vicinity of this stream. 

August 21 to 23 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Survey d for Maj r Lawrence 
Washington the Waste Land between the Lines of 
M r Worthington Davis & T Keys bounded as follow- 
eth beg at 4 Sycamores standing on the edge of 
Worthington s Run being his C : & run thence S 72 
W Twenty eight Poles to a red Oak thence N 78 
E Two hund d & Ninety four poles to several small 
Saplins Wor y beg. Corner thence S 20 W l Two 
hund d & Sixty poles to a red Oak, thence N 70 W i 
One hund d & twenty poles to a white Oak, thence 
N 20 W l Two hund d & Seventy Six poles to a white 
Oak, Then West Forty five Poles to a white Oak 
hickory & Walnut S 10 W l Five hund d & forty poles 
to a black Oak thence S 80 E 1 Sixty poles to a white 
Oak thence N 10 E l 45 poles to a C : of Pitts s 
Patent Land Eighty Eight poles to a Large hickory 
in a hallow Corner to y e L d Surveyd for Davis & 
Stephenson thence with their Lines S 80 E l One 
hund d poles to a Large white Oak & small hickory 



Journal. 117 

thence S 37^ E< One hund d & Eighty four poles to 
2 white Oaks one of them Dead by a path side thence 
N 36 E* Thirty Six poles to a stooping white Oak by 
the S path Corner to a Sepe e Survey made for Wil 
liam Davis thence with his Lines N 29^ E 1 One 
hund d & fifty Six poles to 2 red Oaks Davis s Corner 
thence to a Corner of his Patent L d S 54 E* Six 
poles a Large red Oak y e beg. C. of his Patent (his 
patent Lines being protracted) went to y e Corner of 
Samuel Waker s Patent L d now W a white Oak & 
run thence along his Line & keys S 17 W Three 
hund d & thirty four poles to 2 red Oaks where Keys 
Corner sh d stand the Courses being protracted thence 
S 72 E fc Two hund d & four poles to a hickory on the 
West side a Meadow where Davis s Patent s d Corner 
then following the Courses of his patent S W 1 One 
hund d & Eight poles to a red Oak on y e side of a 
hill (y e patent says a hickory but their is neither Line 
or Corner to be found) thence N 70 W 1 One hund d 
& forty poles to a black Oak & white Oak Near a 
glade & on y e N side th: N 45 W 4 148 po: to a 
Large Oak in a small hallow thence N E l 22 po to a 
hie: Sap th. N W 1 76 poles to 3 tri. hie near a 
path th. N 82 E 82 poles to Davis s patent C r 
W M CRAWFORD \ ^ ^ 
LEWIS THO S } 

DANIEL M C KLEDUFF. 

August 23 d 1750 Then survey d for Maj r Law r 
Washington of Fairfax County a certain tract of 



1 1 8 Journal. t 

waste and ungranted Land in Frederick joining 
Worthington s Land and Beg: at the 2 d corner the s d 
Worthington s tract a red Oak and extended with his 
Line N 70 W one hundred and twenty poles to 
white Oak thence leaving his Lines and extended S 
60 W one hundred and seventy four poles to two 
white Oaks, one double stand g on y e side of the 
Old wag 11 Road thence N 80 W fifty Six poles to a 
white Oak and hic ry in Worthingtons Line thence 
with his Lines S 10 W. two hundred poles to a black 
Oak thence S 80 E. Sixty poles to a white Oak 
thence N 10 E^ 25 po to a c r of Pitts s patent L d 
Eighty eight poles to a large hi ry c r to a survey known 
by that of Pitts s now Stephenson s Jrthen with these 
Lines S 80 E[ one hund d poles to a large white Oak 
and small hic ry thence S 8;J E^ one hundred & 
Eighty four poles to two white Oaks one of them 
dead & stand s by a path thence N 86 E l thirty six 
poles to a Sloaping white Oak on the edge of the s d 
path c r to a survey made for W m Davis thence with 
his Lines N 29^ E one hund d and fifty six poles to 
two read Oaks S 54 E l six po to a c r of his pat d L d 
th : with a Line therof N 82 E! 82 po to 3 live hic ry 
thence N 10 W. one hund d and Eighty four poles 
and S 85 W. One hund d and fifteen poles to the 
Beg : con R Six hund d and thirteen acres. 
W M CRAWFORD | 
LEWIS THO S j Per 

G. WASHINGTON 89 
89 The field notes of this survey, as well as the neatly drawn 



Journal. 1 1 9 

plat of the land, is on one side of a large, loose foolscap sheet of 
paper, and all in the handwriting of Washington. As the dia 
gram can easily be reproduced from the notes, no engraving of 
it is given in this work. 

August 24 th & 25 th Plats drawn 

Survey d for Maj r Law 6 Washington 
y e following Tract of Land Beg at 3 Sycamores a 
Corner of Rob 1 Worthington s Pa 1 L d & run thence 
N 10 W l 24 po. to a white Oak another of W C r 
thence N 5 W l 24 po. to a hick y another of W g C r 
th N 2 E l 42 po to a hickory W C thence N 24 W l 
64 po to a hie : th., N 49 W 46 po to a white Oak 
th S W 1 74 poles to a white Oak th S 27 W fc 28 
poles to a white Oak & hickory th: N 65 W 1 178 
poles to a red Oak th North 158 to a red O. th West 
50 po to a white Oak th N 1 10 poles to a white Oak 
& red Oak on y e East side a glade another Corner of 
his Patent L d also a Corner of his Survey th with 
those Lines N 89 E* 208 po to a Large red Oak & 
small hickory th N 19^ E 1 262 poles to 3 Locusts in 
a Bottom thence leaving his Lines & run th N 83 
E* 1 8 po to a Double hickory near a Limestone Rock 
Henry Bradshaws Corner th: with his Lines S 70 
E l 210 po to 3 hick ys and a Locust 4 poles from a 
Large red Oak on a Level Bradshaws Corner th N 
20 E* 68 po to a white Oak on a Level in Bradshaws 
Line th S 50^ ^37 po to Capt n Rutherfords beg 
Corner of his p 1 L d a white Oak th with his Lines S 
22 W 1 255 po to a red Oak and white Oak thence 
S 68 E t 94 poles to a Dead red Oak 2 small hick ys 



1 20 Journal. 

& a Locust Rutherfords C r also C r to Walter Sherley 
th : with Sherley s Line S 13 E l 310 po to a Scubby 
red Oak Sherley s & Nath 1 Thomas s Corner th. with 
Thomas s Lines West One hund d & twenty poles to 
a red Oak and white Oak th S 240 poles to 2 red 
Oaks & an hie. Tho s C r in Keys s Line th with Keys s 
Line N 72 W l Two hund d & fifty Six poles to a 
white Oak on Worth* River near the Mill thence N 
2. 30 E l 1 10 poles to y e beg. 
WILLIAM CRAWFORD 



r C 

1 HOMAS ^ARNY 

August 26 th 1 750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Maj r Lawrence 
Washington y e Vacancy between Worthingtons Lines 
beginning at y e upper C r of y e Surplus L d 2 white 
Oaks on y e Edge of the Barons near Smiths Glade 
& run thence with W y Lines S 72 E l 410 poles to to 
a black Oak & hie: th N 9 E l 150 poles to a hick y 
th N 68 W l Sixty poles to a white Oak N i E 1 154 
po to a red Oak th West no po to a white Oak th : 
S 35 W 1 44 po to a white Oak th- N 70 W l 102 
poles to a red Oak th S 89 W l 89 poles to a white 
Oak th S 13! 15 W fc 206 poles to y e Beg Con g 570 
Acres 

HUGH RANKON \ 
TIMOTHY M C CARTY j 
ROB T WORTHINGTON Marker 



August 28 th 1750 plat drawn 

Surveyd for Capt n George Johnston 



Journal. 121 

a certain Tract of waste & ungranted Land Situate 
in Frederick County & on y e S Side Bullskin y e S 
Fork thereof & bounded as followeth Beginning at a 
Sycamore standing on the S side Bullskin C r to y e 
Haynes s and Patrick Matthews and run thence with 
y e Haynes s Line N 88 W* Three hund d Poles to a 
Large hickory another of the Haynes s Corner s 
thence N 82 W l Two hund d & Sixty poles to a white 
Oak in y e Line of D r M c Cormick s Patent L d then with 
his Patent Line S 27 W l One hund d & Sixty Six 
poles to an old black stump in y e Barrens s d to be 
M c Cormicks Corner th N 68 W* Ten & 4 poles to 
a small Locust th N 55- 30 W fc Twenty four poles to 
a stake near y e Middle of y e Water Course thence up 
y e Water N 85^ W l Twelve poles to a Stake near y e 

Center of y e Spring thence S Fifty poles near to 

a small red Oak & hickory in y e Barrens then East Six 
hund d & thirty poles to 3 white Oaks in Grubbs Line 
thence N ioi W l Sixty Six poles thence N 40 E 4 - 
Twenty six poles between two Walnut Trees th N 
36 E* Fifty poles to y e beg : Con g 552 Acres 
JOHN JOHNSON 



C C 

THOMAS JONES j" 

JOSHUA HAYNES M r 

Oct r 1 7 th Then Surveyd for M r Tho s Loftan a certain 
Tract of waste & un d Land in F. Beg at a white Oak 
on y e N E fc Side a Meadow Col George Fairfax 
Corn r & run thence N 7 E* 34 po to 2 small white 
Oaks by a the Road that Leads to Pennington John- 
16 



1 2 2 Journal. 

ston s &c a then S 83 E l 128 po to 3 small Locusts in 
y e Barrens on a knowl the. S 7 W l 132 po to 3 small 
Locust by a path Side in a Valley near John Cozines 
House thence N 83 (W l 128 po to 2 red Oaks in 
Col G. Fairfax s Line thence with his Line N 7 E l 
298 po to y e Beg Cont g 265^ Acres plat drawn 
JOHN COZINE ) ^^ 

GEO. SMITH j N. B. this plat beg at 2 red 

Oaks & white Oak Col G. 
THO S LOFTAN M r Fx. c r 

Oct. 1 8 th i 750 Then Surveyd for G. Smith a certain 
Tract of waste L d Situate in Frederick County & on 
Long Marsh beg at 3 small Locust on y e N Side L g 
M Tho s Loftans Corner & run thence S E 220 po to 
3 white Oak Sap 1 thence S 7 W 1 200 po to Long 
Marsh 312 po to 3 white Oaks th: N W 1 220 po to a 
a white Oak in Thorn 8 Loftan s Line & 38 po from 
his C r from thence with his Line to the beg. Con g 
335 Acres 

plat drawn 
JOHN COZINE j 
THOM S LOFTAN ) 

X 

OWEN THO S M r 

Oct r 1 8 th Then Survey d for John Cuszine a Tract of 
L d Situate & joining Col G. Fairf* Beg at a hick y & 
red Oak Fx C r & run with his Line S 30 W 220 po 
to 2 red Oaks in his Line th leaving his Line S 60 E* 
182 poles to a hickory on a Level thence N 30 E l 310 



Journal. 123 

po to G. Smiths Line about 8 po from his C r within 
his Line thence with his Line N 45 W l 210 poles to 
a white Oak in Tho s Loftans Line thence with his 
Line S 7 W* 20 poles to 3 small Locust by a path 
his C r thence with an r of his Lines N 83 W t 128 
poles to 2 red Oaks his C r in Col G. Fairfaxs line 
thence with his Lines S 7 W fc 90 poles to a large white 
Oak Fx th S 60 E l 90 poles to y e beg Con g 455 
Acres plat drawn 

THO S LOFTAN JUN R ) 
G. SMITH j 

JOHN COZINE 

Oct r 19 th Then Surveyed for Isabella Jump a certain 
Tract of waste & ungranted L d joining her Patent 
L d beg at a white Oak near a path & run thence N 
96 po thence S 60 W l 88 po to a hick y on y e rising 
of a knowl thence N 73 W l 26 po ab l a rod further 
than a Large red Oak & hick y th: N 4 E fc 84 po to 
a red Oak in Tho s Colston L d thence with his Line S 
W fc 125 po to a hick y near a path about 40 y ds from 
Fairfax C y Road th S 76 E l 194 po to y e Beg Con* 
65 Acres 

plat drawn 

GEORGE HAMPTON | 
STEPHEN SEBASTIAN j 
JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Oct r 19 th Then Surveyd for John Vance a certain 
Tract of waste L d joining & beg at a hick y Tho s Cols 
ton s Corn r & run thence with his Line N W* 120 po 



124 Journal. 

to a small locust & red Oak in rich Barons thence 
S W l 200 po near a small white Oak & burn t topt 
D in a hollow Glade thence S E l 260 po. near 2 red 
Oaks on a knowl in y e Barons thence N E l 200 po to 
a hick 7 on a knowl thence N 26^- E 1 70 po to a red 
Oak in Widow Jumps Line th with her Line N 76 
W l 134 poles to ye Beg Con g 353 Acres 
WILLIAM CRAWFORD ) 

THO* HAMPTON } C C P lat drawn 

ALEX R VANCE 

Oct 1 19 th then Survey d for John Anderson Beg. at 2 
red Oaks John Vances C r & run thence S 82 po to a 
hick 7 & red Oak on a knowl thence S 54 W l 114 to 
2 white Oaks in Carter s Line thence with his Line 
N 58^ W 140 po th N 30 E l 8 po to two hick 73 in 
Carters Line y e Course to be Drawn straight which is 
N 56 W l 140 thence N 30 E l 198 po to a Large red 
Oak & hick 7 on a level in John Vances Line thence 
with his th S E t 150 po to y e Beg Con g 192 Acres 

Plat drawn 
ISAAC FOSTER } 
RALPH ^- ^ L C 



JOHN MILLER M r 
260 
150 

Oct r 22 d 1750 Then Surveyd for Isaac Foster a cert n 
Tract of L d beg: at 2 white Oak in Carters Line & 
run thence N 50 E l 23 po to a red Oak ab l 4 pole 



Journal. 125 

from Fosters house th N 31^ E 204 p to a hic y & 
small white Oak th S 66 E l 45 po to a small white 
Oak & burnt topt D John Vances C r thence with 
Vances Line S E l no poles to a large red Oak & 
hic y John Andersons C r in Vances Line th with An 
dersons Line S 30 W ly 8 poles to 2 hick ys in 
Mess rs Carters Line finally along Vances Line N 56 
W l 167 poles to y e beg Con g 203 Acres 
plat drawn 

RALPH CROFT j 
JOHN MILLER M r 



JOHN ANDERSON f ^ 



Oct r 22 d Then Surveyd for Sam 1 Isaac Beg at 2 white 
Oaks in C r Line & Isaac Foster s C r & run thence 
with his Lines N 50 E* 23 po to a red Oak th N 
31^ E* 206 po to a hic y th N 57 W l 320 po to 2 
small Locust & one hick y in a clear spot then S 31^ 
W l 206 po to 5 red Oak Saplins in Carters Line 
thence with his Line S 56 E* 308 poles to y e beg 
Con g 415 Acres 

plat drawn 

JOHN ANDERSON j 
JOHN MILLER M r 



RALPH CROFT , 



Oct r 23 d Then Surveyd for Capt n Isaac Penington a 
certain Tract of waste L d joining his own Patent L d 
beg. at a white Oak a Corn r of his Patent L d & run 
th S 45 W l 30 po to Morris s Patent C r 260 po to 4 



126 Journal. 

small black Oaks in Sam 1 Isaac s C r thence with his 
Line S 57 E l 298 to a hick y his C r likewise Corner to 
Isaac foster thence with his Line S 66 E l 45 po to a 
small white Oak & burnt topt D his C r also C r to 
John Vance thence with Vance s Line N E l 200 po 
to a small Locust & red Oak in Rich Barons in Isaac 
Peningtons Line thence with his Line N W l 335 to 
y e Beg Con g 445 

Plat drawn 
HENRY HENDRICKS 
JOHN URTON 
ISAAC PENINGTON M r 

Oct r 23 d Then Surveyd for Patrick Rice a tract of 
waste L d on y e head of Long Marsh beg at 2 white 
Oaks on y e N Side of Long Marsh & run thence S 
22 W l 154 po to 2 red Oak Saplins Nath 1 Daughilys 
C r on a knowl th N 68 W^ 320 po to 3 red Oaks in 
Rocky Limestone Ground thence N 22 E 1 200 po to 
2 red Oaks & one white O. Saplins near a stooping 
white Oak in Limestones th S 68 E 320 po to 2 
hick ys from thence to y e Beg Cont ff 400 Acres 

Plat drawn 
HENRY HENDRICKS 

JOHN URTON C C N. B. this plat I have made 

to begin at y e two red Oaks 
PATRICK RICE M r on y e S side Long Marsh 

Oct r 24. Survey d for John Madden a tract at Joes 
Hole beg at a white Oak about on y e Fairfax Road & 



Journal. 1 2 7 

Run thence S E 200 near 3 Small Locust in y e M h 
thence S W l 320 po ab l i pole from a hic y on a Lime 
stone Ridge thence N W l 200 po to a Limestone 
Rock 4 M near two small mark d Red Oak Saplins in 
Very Rocky Ground th N E l 320 po to y e Beg Cont g 
400 Acres Plat drawn 

THOMAS HAMPTON | 
JEREMIAH WOOD j 
JOHN LINDSEY Mark r 



Oct r 24 th Survey d for Jeremiah Wood a certain Tract 
of Waste L d Begin Carters Line & Sam 1 Isaac s C r 5 
red Oaks and Run thence with his Line N 31^ E l 
206 po to 3 Small Locusts another of Isaac s C r thence 
N 60 W* 216 po to a Dead hickory & live red Oak 
& white Oak Saplins in y e Barains th S 31^ W* 244 
po to a red Oak in Mess rs Corners Line thence with 
his S 731 E l 100 th N 60 E 12 po to 2 white Oaks 
& a hick 7 Carters Corner y e Course which is S 89 E fc 
no to be drawn straight th to y e beg. S 56 E* 112 
poles Cont g 292 Acres 

SAM L ISAAC 
THO S MCLAHAN 
JER H WOOD 

Oct r 27 th then Surveyd for Rob 1 Ashby Beg at 2 white 
Oak in Carters Line & run thence N n W 4 192 po 
to a forked red Oak near a Glade th N 81 E l 333 po 
to white Oak Saplins & one red Oak 320 po to Fair- 



128 Journal. 

fax Road th S 1 1 E i 56 po to a red Oak on a Ridge 
thence S 30 W 1 76 po to a red Oak white Oak & 
Locust thence S n E l 55 po to 3 small hic y Saplins 
in Mess rs Carters Line th to y e Beg. S 77 W 1 283 

poles Con g 346 Acres 

plat drawn 
JOHN URTON 
STEP" SOUTHERD 

ROB T ASIIBY M r 

plat drawn 

Oct r 2Q th Survey d for Hannah Southerd late Widow 
to Peter Camperlin & Jacob & Sam 1 Camperlin a 
cert n Tract of Waste L d Beg. at a fork d red Oak near 
a Glade & run thence with his Line N 81 E l 333 po 
xing Fairfax Road to 2 white Oak Saplins & one red 
Oak D thence N 05 W l 182 po to red Oak in Col 
G Fairfax s Line thence with his Line N 75 W* 144 
po to a red Oak Fx Col Fx C r also C r to Johnstons 
patent th with his Line South 160 po. to a Locust 
Stake in a Corn Field th N 60 W l 52 po to John 
stons C r 2 white Oaks then went to y e white Oak 
Rob 1 Ashbys C r and extend d th N 1 1 W- 5 1 poles 
to a red O. white O. & locust in Vances Line th : 
with Vances Line N E l 31 poles N 26^ E i 70 poles 
to W. Jumps Line th : to y e tother C r Con g 311 Acres 
JOHN URTON 

JOHN SHEELY this plat is made to beg n 

STEPHEN SOUTIIERD in Widow Jumps Line 

Vance c r & to run first 
with Vances Line 



Journal. 1 29 

Oct r 29 th Survey d for Rob 1 Fox a Tract Beg. at 2 
white Oaks Rob fc Ashbys C r in Carters Line R A 
& run thence with Ashbys Line N 55 W l 192 to Ash 
bys C r 243 po to a red Oak a hick y & Locust in 
Vances Line thence with his Line S W fc 168 po to 
Vances C r 3 red Oaks on a knowl also C r to John 
Anderson thence with Andersons Line S 82 poles to 
a a hickory & red Oak anoth r of Andersons C rs thence 
S 54 W l 114 po to White Oaks in Carters Line 
thence with his Line S 56 E l 36 po to a a white Oak 
& hick 7 in y e Turn of Carters Line thence with his 
Line N 79 E fc 237 poles to y e Beg Con g 1216 Acres 

Plat drawn 
JOHN URTON 



C C 

JOHN SHEELY f 

ROB T Fox 

Oct r 30 th 1750 

Surveyd for Capt n George Neavil a Tract 
beg at a Walnut Morris s patent C r & run thence N 
W 1 200 po to a Spanish Oak on a Ridge of Rocks 
thence S W* 321 po two red Oak Saplins on y e N 
Side Fairfax Road thence S E fc 200 po to 3 red 
Oak Saplins th N 50 E fc 52 po to a red Oak C r to 
Morris s Patent thence to y e Beg Containing 400 
Acres plat drawn 

THOMAS HAMPTON 
RICH D HAMPTON 52 

FRANCIS CARNEY 92 

744 

N. B I have made the above L d a parrallelogram 
17 



1 30 Journal. 

November 3 d 1750 Plat drawn 

Then Surveyd for Capt n Marquis 
Calmes Beg on y e S Side Bullskin in Capt n G . 
Johnstons Line 3 white Oak & run th. with his Line 
N 20 po to a stake in y e Center spring of head of 
Bullskin Johnstone C r th down y e Water Course S 5^ 
E l 12 po to a stake in y e stream another of John 
ston s Q s thence leaving y e Water & run thence N 5 
E l 148 po to a red Oak th N 48 E l 19 pole to a red 
Oak in D^ M^Cormick s Line th with his Line N 24 
po to a hick y & red Oak M c Cormicks C r the true C r 
is N 35 E l - 126 to a double red Oak y e pat 1 mentions 
a hic y at 256 po: N 258 Pole to a red Oak Wal 
nut & Locust in a rich spot of Ground th S 80 W 1 
192 po to 3 White Oaks on a Stoney Ridge th N 60 
W* 148 po. to 3 red Oaks on a Stony Ridge th S 
30 W l 380 po to 2 small hickorys near two white Oaks 
thence S 52 E l 428 poles to a white Oak & two red 
Oaks thence N 85 E t 40 po to y e Beg Cont g 1170 
Acres 

ROERT WORTHINGTON ) ~ ~ 

JAMES M C CORMICK j 

CAPT N MARQUIS CALMES Marker 



Beg at a red Oak and hick 7 Davis s & Stephen- 
sons C r & run thence S 42 - - 15 W* 220 po to y e 
Marsh 240 po to a small white Oak in Stephensons 
Line 294 po to a stake near a markt white Oak 
thence S 30 E l 20 poles to a white Oak Col G Fx s 



Journal. 1 3 1 

Corner thence to y e beg y e above was an addition 
made to M r Fairfaxs Tract 90 

90 The survey of November 3 d , 1750 for Captain Marquis 
Calmes has several pencil lines drawn across it, with the mem 
orandum also in pencil and in Washington s handwriting : 
" Get y? last Surveys returnd to y e Office ". 



INDEX. 



Academy attended, 11. 
Academy in Westmoreland, 11. 
Agent of Lord Fairfax, 68. 
Ague and fever, 66. 
Alexandria, charter for, 53. 
Alexandria, course of river 

front, 56. 
Alleghany mountains, 12, 25, 

29, 32. 

Ambler. Edward, 18, 60. 
Anderson. Bartholamore, 73. 
Anderson. John, 124, 125, 129. 
Antietam creek, 31. 
Appalachian range, 21. 
Arlington. Lord, 77. 
Arnold. Jonathan, 107, 108. 
Arnold. Josiah, 102. 
Arnold. Kichard, Sr., 71, 98, 

99, 100. 
Arnold. Eichard, Jr., 98, 99, 

113. 

Ash tree, 44, 48, 88. 
Ashby. Capt, 21. 
Ashby. Henry, 28, 39, 55. 
Ashby. Robert, 28, 55, 128, 129. 
Ashby. Geiil. T. W., 22. 
Ashby s Bent, 52. 
Ashby s Ferry, 47. 
Ashby s Gap, 19. 
Assembly of Ya., 26, 68. 
Augusta Co., Ya., 20, 25, 40, 

80, 81, 82, 83, 104, 105, 106. 



Augusta Co., Ya., boundary, 

55. 
Augusta Co., Ya., formed, 79. 

Baggage came, 28. 

Baker. Samuel, 86, 87. 

Baker. William, 86. 

Baltimore. Lord, 32. 

Barbadoes, island of, 30, 54. 

Barnes, Richard, Gent., 76, 77, 
78, 80. 

Baronies or manors, 39. 

Barony of Cameron, 24. 

Barwick. Thomas, 29. 

Bath, England, 19. 

Bath Warm Springs, Ya., 29, 
30. 

Battle between Delawares and 
Catawbas, 37. 

Beards, full, not in fashion, 69. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, 36. 

Beautifully kept copy book, 10. 

Bed-rooms rarely heated, 70. 

Beds, poor, 26. 

Belvoir, books at, 67, 68. 

Belvoir estate described, 17. 

Belvoir in view from Mt. Yer- 
non, 15. 

Belvoir mansion burnt, 18, 19. 

Belvoir, the home of the Fair 
faxes, 15. 

"Bent," a large river bottom, 52. 



134 



Index. 



Berkeley Co., Va,, 18, 50. 

Berkeley. Governor, 77. 

Beverley manor, 40. 

Beverley Mills,now Stanton,79. 

Big Kettle, 32. 

Big Shawnee Spring, 25. 

Big Spoon, 32. 

Black oak, 81. 

Black smith, 48. 

Black walnut, 28, 47, 48. 

Blackburn. Col., 28. 

Bladen. Col. Martin, 68. 

Bladen. Gov. Thomas, 31. 

Blair. John, 68. 

" Blaze," a surveyor s term, 47. 

" Blazed" trees, 47. 

Blue ridge, 12, 20, 21, 51. 

Born a leader, 9. 

Braddock. General, 20, 31. 

Bradshaw. Henry, 119. 

Brentville, 21. 

Brother Austin, 67. 

Brother Lawrence, 52, 66, 67. 

Brown. Samuel, 95. 

Buffalo paths and Indian trails, 

52. 

Bull Run, 21. 
Bullskin creek, 115, 121. 
Burch trees, 85, 86, 87. 
Burroughs. Ann, 20. 
Burwell s Island, 21. 
Butler. Jane, first wife of A. 

W., 52. 

Cacapehon mountain, 40. 

Cacapehon river, 73, 79, 80, 
81, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 
95, 96, 101, 102, 103, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112. 

Calmes. Captain Marquis, 130. 

Camp at Mr. Stumps, 41, 42. 



Campbell. Maj., 29. 

Camperlin. Jacob, 128. 

Camperlin. Peter, 128. 

Camperlin. Samuel, 128. 

Canoe, crossed Potomac to Md., 
30. 

Canoe, recrossed to Virginia, 
34. 

Carlyle. John, 53, 68. 

Carney. Francis, 129. 

Carney. Thomas, 120. 

Carter s line, 124, 125, 127, 129. 

Carthegenia expedition, 53. 

Cary. Anna, 60. 

Gary. Elizabeth, 60. 

Car y. Mary, 18, 59, 60. 

Cary. Sarah, 18, 60. 

Cary. Wilson, 18, 59. 

Cary. Wilson Miles, 60. 

Cassey. Peter, 49, 50. 

Catawba Indians, 36. 

Gates marsh, 25, 26, 27, 56. 

Gaudy. James, 99. 

Gaudy s Castle, 99. 

Cellars. Elias, 42. 

Chainmen on surveys, 28, 39, 
55, 78, 79, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 
93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 109, 
117, 120, 122,123,124,126, 
127. 

Charles II, 77. 

Charlottsburg, now Cumber 
land, 65. 

Chartier s creek, Pa., 20. 

Char tier s creek, town projected 
at, 65. 

Chestnut trees, 75, 81. 

Chestnut oak, 42, 44, 48, 87. 

Chinese table furniture, 36. 

Chips for plates, 51. 

Clay Lick Run, 39, 40. 



Index. 



135 



Clark. Deborah, 68. 
Clean shaved faces, 69. 
Clearfield Co., Pa., 50. 
Coady s on Great Cacapehon, 

51. 
Coburns early settlers in valley, 

38. 

Cohongoruton or Potomac, 29. 
Colchester, Fairfax Co. char 
ter, 53. 

Colins. John, 51. 
Collector of customs, 68. 
Collins. Luke, 85, 103. 
Colston, Raleigh, Esq., 24. 
Colston. Thomas, 123. 
Columbia, Pa., 30. 
Commission of plantations, 77. 
Constant. John, 108, 109. 
Continental Army, 46. 
Contraction of first names, 67. 
Cooked their own meats, 51. 
Corder. Edward, 78, 79, 95. 
Corner trees blaze, 47. 
Coryat. Thomas, 35. 
Council with Indians, 64. 
Course of river at Alexandria, 

56. 
Court, November, in Frederick 

Co., 70. 

Cox. Friend, 111. 
Cozine. John, 27. 
Cozine s. John, house, 122, 

123. 

Craig. Major Isaac, 21. 
Crawford. William, 116, 117, 

118, 120, 124. 
Cresap. Col. Thomas, 30, 31, 

32, 33, 34, 64. 
Cresap. Daniel, 32. 
Cresap. Michael, 32. 
Cresap s map, 32. 



Croft. Ealph, 124, 125. 
Culpeper. Catherine, 23, 77. 
Culpeper, Lord Gov. of Va., 

77. 
Culpeper, Lord Thomas, 23, 

77. 

Culpeper, widow of lord, 77. 
Culpeper Co., History of, 76, 

77. 
Culpeper Co. " Minute Men," 

77. 

Culpeper Co., surveyor of, 79. 
Culpeper Court-House, 78. 
Cumberland, Md., 32, 34. 

Daughely. Nathaniel, 126. 
"Daughter of the Stars," 22. 
Davids Run, Frederick Co., 

89. 

Davis. William, 115, 117. 
Davis. Worthington, 116. 
Dawson. Isaac, 109, 110. 
"Dear Friend John," 57. 
Deer, wild, in Fairfax Co., 39. 
Delaware Indians, 36, 37. 
Denny, Lord Fairfax, 24. 
Denton. Robert, 71/80, 104, 

105. 

Dilouza. James, 96, 97, 106. 
Dinner with wine, etc., 28. 
Dinwiddie. Gov., 64. 
Discrete in use of liquors, 29. 
Dishes, had none, 51. 
Dividing line, 32. 
Dogwood trees, 81. 
Double dating, 15. 
Doubloon a day, 63. 
Draft of letter to Lord Fairfax, 

73. 
Draft of letter to sister-in-law, 

66. 



36 



Index. 



Dnl any, Mr., of Maryland, 31. 
Dumfries, 21. 

Dimbar. Ann, 71, 82, S3, 104. 
Dunbar. John, 82, 104. 
Duncan. William, 39. 
Dununore s Indian War, 20. 
Dutch, speaking no English, 45. 

Early maps of Va., 52. 
Edwards. David, 87, 88, 89, 

90, 91, 96, 97. 

Edwards. Joseph, 8S, 98, 99. 
Edwards. Thomas, 88, 98. 
Elm trees, 87. 

Elizabeth City, Co., Va., 59. 
Ellswick. John, 83. 
Ellswick. John, Sr., 72. 
Employment, first, 9. 
England and the calendar, 15. 
Enoch. Henry, 108, 112. 
Episcopal Church, 26. 
Everett, 60. 
Expert in surveying, 11. 

Fairfax. Anne, 53, 68. 

Fairfax. Rev. Bryan, 19, 24, 
60, 68. 

Fairfax. Catherine, 77. 

Fairfax. Ferdinand, 19. 

Fairfax. George William, 11, 
12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 27, 45, 
49, 51, 52, 54, 59, 60, 68, 
72, 73, 115, 121, 122, 123. 

Fairfax. Hannah, 69. 

Fairfax. Henry, 23, 67. 

Fairfax. Robert, 24. 

Fairfax. Sarah, 68. 

Fairfax. Capt. Thomas, 68. 

Fairfax. Lord Thomas, 11, 12, 
15, 20, 22, 26, 37, 53, 68. 

Fairfax. lion. William, 11, 15, 
18, 23, 67, 69. 



Fairfax, Hon. Wm., Trustee, 
53. 

Fairfax. Wm. Henry, 69. 

Fairfax Co., its formation, 52, 
117. 

Fairfax land office, 13. 

Fairfax manor, 40. 

Fauntleroy. Betty, 61. 

Feather bed, 29. 

Federal Constitution, 37. 

Field book of surveys, 75, 76. 

Field notes of surveys, 12, 13, 
74. 

Fifteen Mile creek, 63. 

Filial reverence, 10. 

First road over the Alleghanies, 
31. 

Flag of " Culpeper Minute 
Men," 77. 

Fleas and other vermin, 26. 

Flesh fork, 35. 

Fork of S. Branch, 38, 40. 

Forked sticks for spits, 51. 

Fort Ashby, 22, 34. 

Fort Loudoun, 26. 

Fort Wolf, 47. 

Forts in Frederick Co., 26. 

Forts, to build, on Ohio, 65. 

Forts, to garrison, against In 
dians, 64. 

Foster. Isaac, 124, 126. 

Fox. Robert, 129. 

Foxes, wild, near Washington, 
39. 

Frankfort on Patterson creek, 
22. 

Franklin. Ben., 65. 

Frederick county, 20, 24, 25, 
26, 34, 45, 50, 54,55, 85,87, 
88, 89,91,95,100, 101,102, 
106, 107, 108, 114, 121, 122. 



Index. 



Fredericksburg, Ya., 19, 61. 
French and English on Ohio, 

31. 
French, early adopt knife and 

fork, 35. 

Friend. John, 111. 
Friend. Nicholas, 111. 
Frontier -cabins, 27. 
Fry and Jefferson s map, 20. 

" Game," a fictitious term, 28. 

Genn. James, 21, 51, 55, 56. 

German emigrants, 45. 

German Protestants, 45. 

German regiments, 46. 

Germans in Shenandoah Val 
ley, 45, 47. 

Gist. Christopher, 64. 

Glade. "Smith s," 120. 

Gooch, Governor, of Ya., 25, 
37. 

Good humor, 28. 

Goony Run manor, 39. 

Great bend in Shenandoah, 52. 

Great Cacapehon, 63. 

Great Valley of Virginia, 13. 

Greathouse, 32. 

Greeks did not have table forks, 
35. 

Green way Court, 18, 22. 

Greenway Court, library at, 67. 

Greenway Court manor, 39. 

Gregorian chronology, 15. 

Grubb s line, 121. 

Gryrnes. Miss Lucy, 60. 

Gum trees, 90, 93. 

Half brother Lawrence, 10, 

12, 66. 

Hamilton. James, 80. 
18 



Hamilton, James, Jr., 72. 
Hampshire Co., Va., 34, 39. 
Hampton. George, 123. 
Hampton. Joseph, 123. 
Hampton. Richard, 129. 
Hampton. Thomas, 124, 127, 

129. 

Hanbury. John, 64. 
Hancock, Maryland, 63. 
Hardy Co., Va., 20, 22, 37, 39, 

40, 73. 

Harris. Henry, 47. 
Harrison. Ann, 23. 
Havre-de-Grace, Md., 30. 
Hay, stack of, 50. 
Haynes. Joshua, 121. 
Hedges. Solomon, 34. 
Hedgman s creek, 80. 
Hemp and tobacco, 24. 
Hend ricks. Henry, 126. 
Henry. Patrick, 70. 
Hogan. Edward, 78, 79, 80, 81, 

105. 
Hickory trees, 28, 41, 46, 48, 

55. 

Historical year, 15. 
Hite. Capt. Joist, 24, 25, 51. 
Horner. George, 72. 
Horse jockey, 37. 
House of Burgesses, 53. 
How. Josh., 83, 84. 
Howard s early settlers, 38. 
Howt. Jno., from K E., 72. 
Hughes. Elias, 93. 
Hughes. Hugh, 92, 93. 
Hughes. Thomas, 91, 92. 
Hughes. "William, Jr., 92, 93, 

94. 

Hughes. William, Sr., 92, 93. 
Humphras. Mrs., 70. 
Hunting creek plantation, 53. 



138 



Index. 



Hunting lodge, 22. 
Hyatt. George, 89. 

Illinois formed from Va., 55. 

Indian dance, 33. 

Indian scalp, 33. 

Indian trails lead through the 

mountain passes, 52. 
Indiana formed from Va., 55. 
Indians returning from war, 

33. 

Indians, trading with, 31. 
Introduction, 9. 
Introduction of table forks, 35. 
Inventory of articles bought at 

Fairfax sale, 16, 17. 
Irving, 60. 

Isaacs. Samuel, 125, 126, 127. 
Italy, use of knife and fork, 35. 

Jamestown, Va., 60. 

Jefferson Co., Va., 50. 

Jefferson. Thomas, 32. 

" Jesuit Bird," 38. 

Jet. Francis, 75, 76. 

"Joe s Hole," 126. 

Johnston, 122, 128. 

Johnston. Abram, 34. 

Johnston. Capt. George, 120, 
130. 

Johnston. John, 121. 

Johnston. Thomas, 54, 55. 

Johnston. Miss, marries T. C re- 
sap, 30. 

Johnstones. William, 28. 

Jones. Thomas, 121. 

Journal, a literal transcript of, 
13. 

Journal, a private memoran 
dum, 14. 

Journal mutilated, 56. 



Journal of my journey over 

the mountains, 12. 
Journal of voyage to Barba- 

does, 12. 
Judas tree, 47. 
Jump. Isabella, 123. 
Jump. Widow, 124, 128. 
Justice of the peace. 34. 
Juvenile letters, 54. 

Kanawha river, 64. 

Keith. John, 108, 109. 

Kentucky formed from Va., 
55. 

Kercheval s History of the Val 
ley, 22, 25, 36. 

Keys. T., 116, 117, 120. 

King. George, 65. 

King George Co., Va., 21. 

King of Hungary, 35. 

Kinnison. Edward, Jr., 95. 

Kinsman. Samuel, 72. 

Kinson. James, 71. 

Kittatinny mountain, 21. 

Knife and fork at table, 34. 

Lafayette. General, 21. 

Land office, 12. 

Land rights, 40. 

Land surveying profitable, 11. 

Land title, 37. 

Land warrants, form of, 72. 

Lane. Eichard, 112. 

Lee. Arthur, 54. 

Lee. George, 54. 

Lee. Genl. Henry, 24, 60. 

Lee. Richard Henry, 54, 64. 

Lee. Thomas, 64. 

Leeds Castle, England, 24, 77. 

Letters, a study for, 57, 58, 62. 

Letters, drafts of, 57, 58. 



Index. 



139 



Lieutenant of Frederick Co., 

23. 

Limestone rocks, 28. 
Lindsay. John, 127. 
Lindsay. Eobert, 107. 
Lindsay. William, 28, 55. 
Liquor given Indians, 33. 
List of clothes, 69. 
Little Cacapehon, 63, 111. 
Liveron. Michael Calb, 44. 
Lizenby. Daniel, 104, 105. 
Locust trees, 49, 55. 
Loftan. Thomas, 121, 122, 123. 
Loftan. Thomas, Jr., 123. 
Logan, friend of the whites, 32. 
Logan, Indian chief, 32. 
Lonem. John, 78, 79, 88, 89, 

90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 

99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 

105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 

111, 112, 113. 
Long Marsh, 26, 27, 31, 54, 55, 

56, 122, 126. 
Lord Baltimore, 32. 
Lordship s quarters, 22. 
Lost his father, 9. 
Lost River, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 

85, 87, 103, 105. 
Lost the road, 52. 
" Lots," a surveyor s term, 36, 

37. 

Loudoun Co., Ya., 52. 
" Low Land Beauty," 59, 60. 
Lowther s College, 68. 
Lutheran Church, 46. 
Lynch. Barnaby, 100. 
Lynn trees, 81, 84, 85, 86, 103. 

McBride. Francis, 81, 82, 104. 
McBride. William, 82. 
McCarty. Timothy, 120. 



McCay. James, 113, 114. 
McClahan. Thomas, 127. 
McCormick. Dr. James, 121, 

130. 

McHandry. Barnaby, 85. 
McKannary. Barnaby, 71. 
McKeaver and son, 97. 
McKeaver. Darby, Jr., 95, 96, 

113. 
McKeaver. Darby the elder, 

72, 96. 

McKleduff. Daniel, 116, 117. 
McKoy. James, 71. 
Madden. John, 126. 
Manor lines, 39, 46, 49. 
Manor of Leads, 39. 
Manorial grants in Ya., 39. 
Manors in N. Y. or Patroons, 

40. 
Markers on surveys, 28, 39, 55, 

78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94,95,96,97, 

101, 109, 115, 120, 122, 123, 

124, 126, 127. 
Mason. George, 31, 64. 
Mason, George, trustee, 53. 
Mathematics, his aptitude in, 

10. 

Matthews. Patrick, 121. 
Maple trees, 84, 85. 
Marshall. Chief Justice, 24. 
Martin, Rev. Denny, name 

changed, 24. 

Maryland house wife, 66. 
Matured early in life, 14. 
Mead. Bishop, 60. 
Mecklenburg, Ya., 46. 
Memorandum for a coat, 62. 
Memorandum of clothes, 69. 
Mercer. George, 65. 
Miller. John, 124, 125. 



140 



Index. 



Miller, Win., horse jockey, 105. 

Minute Men s flag, 77. 

Monongahela river, 64. 

Monroe. John, 74. 

Moor. Philip, 47, 48. 

Moreiield, Ya., 40. 

Morgan Co., Ya., 30. 

Morgan. Gen. Daniel, 21. 

Morris s patent, 125, 129. 

Morton. Rev. Andrew, 18. 

Mother of G. Washington, 9. 

Mount Yernon, 10, 18, 52, 53, 
68. 

Month of S. Branch, 45. 

Mul ilen berg. Eev. Maj. Gen., 
46. 

Musgrove. Edward, 114, 115. 

Musgrove. John, 15. 

Music by Indians, 33. 

My journey over the moun 
tains, 15. 

N. B., 56. 

Namacolin, an Indian chief, 

31. 

Nassau, New Providence, 68. 
National road, 31. 
Nave. Leonard, 44. 
Neck of land, 110. 
Neighbors supply provisions, 

51. 

Nevill. Amelia, 21. 
Neville. George, 15, 19, 129. 
Neville. Brig. Genl. John, 20. 
Neville. Col. Joseph, 20. 
Neville. Presley, 21. 
Neville s ordinary, 20. 
New Providence, 65. 
Newton. John, 108. 
Nicholas. Robert Carter, 60. 
Nickson. George, 101. 



Night caps, 69. 
No idle boy life, 14. 
Norman s ford, 78. 
Norman s line, 78. 
North American Indians, 52. 
North branch, 32. 
North mountain, 26, 32. 
North river of Cacapehon, 106. 
Northern neck of Va., 11, 23, 

72, 77. 
Note book of memoranda, 54. 

Occoquan river, 19, 21. 
Old fields, 49, 50. 
Old Town, 31, 64. 
Oldham. Winifred, 20. 
Ohio company, 53, 63, 64, 65. 
Ohio river, head of, 25, 31. 
Ohio, State of, founded, 55. 
Opequan river, 25, 45. 
Orange Co., Ya., 25. 
Oratory of Indians, 32. 
Osborne. Jeremiah, 48. 
Owen. Thomas, 122, 

Parke. John, Jr., 89, 90. 
Parke. John, Sr., 98, 113. 
Parke. Roger, 113. 
Parker. John, 112. 
Parker. Thomas, Sr., 100. 
Patroons, barons of manor lands 

in N. Y., 40. 

Patterson creek manor, 39. 
Patterson s creek, 22, 34. 
Peach bottom, 30. 
Peaks of Otter, 21. 
Pendleton Co., W. Ya., 32, 

37, 40. 
Pennington. Capt. Isaac, 24, 

121, 125, 126. 
Pennsylvania, 25. 



Index. 



141 



People follow the surveyors, 
45, 48, 49. 

Pernicious weeds, 27. 

Persirnon trees, 75. 

Picture of a war dance, 34. 

Pilot in surveying, 28, 55. 

Pine trees, 42. 

Pinson. Aaron, 42. 

Plat of early surveys, 11. 

Plat of " Hell Hole," 11. 

Plat of survey, 79. 

Plat of turnip field, 11. 

Plats drawn, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 
88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 98, 
100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 
114, 115, 118, 119, 120,122, 
123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 
129, 130. 

Plumb. Samuel, 111. 

Prince William Co., 19. 

Point Lookout, 29. 

Poisoned fields, 27, 28. 

Polk, Charles, of Md., 30. 

Pope s creek, Westmoreland 
Co., 52. 

Poplar trees, 81. 

Portrait of Major Washington, 
54. 

Potomac, head spring of, 80. 

Potomac river, 21, 23, 31, 109. 

Potomac river, high water, 29. 

Powell. Joseph, 90, 91, 92, 93. 

Pownall. S., 65. 

Pownall s, Gov. map, 20. 

President of Council, 68. 

Prince William Co., 15, 21, 52. 

Proprietary rights, 77. 

Provisions exhausted, 51. 

Pugh. Evan, 90, 91, 92. 

Pugh. Evan, Jr., 91, 93, 100. 



Pugh. Jacob, 90, 91, 92. 
Pugh. Jacob, Jr., 90, 100. 
Pulmonary trouble, 54. 

Quebec, storming of, 69. 

Ramsay, William, trustee of 

Alexander, 53. 
Randolph. Senator, 77. 
Rankon. Hugh, 120. 
Rappahannock river, 19, 23. 
Rattle snake, 52. 
Raynal. Abbe, 32. 
Razor in toilet outfit, 69. 
Red bud trees, 46. 
Red oak trees, 28, 44. 
Redstone creek storehouse, 65. 
Reed. Peter, 41. 
Regar. Anthony, 42. 
Reward for man scalps, 33, 34. 
Rice. Patrick, 126. 
Rich barons, 124. 
Rich lands, 24. 
Road made over the Alleghany, 

31, 65. 

Roberts. John, 78. 
Robinson. Nicholas, 93, 94, 95. 
Roe. Richard, 75. 
Rogers. Gov. Wood, 68. 
Romans without knives and 

forks, 35. 
Royal charter, 32. 
" Rules of civility," 26, 35. 
Russell, J. A., Esq., 72. 
Rutherford. Capt. Reuben, 

115, 119. 
Rutledge. James, 37, 38, 39. 

Sale at Belvoir, 16, 19. 
Salem, Massachusetts, 68. 
Salt Lick, 40. 



142 



Index. 



Scalps of Indians, rewards for, 

33, 34. 

School-house, 75. 
Schools attended, 10. 
Scott. James, 83, 84, 103. 
Sebastian. Stephen, 123. 
Sheely. John, 128, 129. 
Sheets, clean, on beds, 29. 
Shenandoah Co., Ya., 39. 
Shenandoah river, 21, 22, 26, 

47, 52, 114. 

Shenandoah valley, 20, 25. 
Shepherdstown, Ya., 37, 4G. 
Sheplar. Henry, 48. 
Sheriff of Frederick Co., 20. 
Sherley. Walter, 120. 
Shoker. Harmon, 42. 
Silver fonr-pronged forks, 36. 
Simson. James, 46. 
Sinclair. John, 15. 
Six Nations, 29. 
Six pistoles a day, 63. 
Skilled director of surveys, 51. 
Skipton, England, 30, 31. 
Slaughter. Francis, 78. 
Sleeping in the open air, 63. 
Sleeping on cabin floors, 27. 
Smith. George, 122, 123. 
Smith. James, 102, 103, 106. 
Smith. Silvenus, 71, 88, 98, 9 ( ,, 

112, 113. 

Smith s Glade, 120. 
South branch manor, 39. 
South branch Potomac, 30, 32, 

36. 

South mountain, 21. 
South Potomac, 68. 
Southerd. Hannah, 128. 
Southerd. Stephen, 128. 
Spanish oak, 41, 44, 46, 49. 
Spark s Washington, 79. 



Spectator, reading, 67. 
Spring branch, 46, 48. 
Spruce trees, 115. 
" Squire " (G. W. Fairfax), 36. 
St. John s wort, 27. 
Stackhouse. John, 72, 103, 106, 

107, 108. 

Stafford Co., Ya., 21. 
Stephenson. Richard, 115,116. 
Stone house built by Cresap, 30. 
Stone house built by Hite, 25. 
Stone lodge, 23. 
Stony creek, 47. 
Storehouse at Red stone, 65. 
Storehouse at Will s creek, 64. 
Strasburg, Ya., 46. 
Straw house, 49. 
Studied surveying, 11. 
Stump. Andrew, 103. 
Stump. Michael, 38, 40, 41, 44. 
Sugar trees, 22. 
Surveying in Shenandoah val- 

ley, 12. 

Surveyor s art, 9, 28. 
Surveyors set to work, 51. 
Swam horses over Potomac, 

30, 34. 
Sycamore trees, 45, 48, 111. 

Table cloth, 34. 
Table knife, history of, 34, 35. 
Tarred cotton cap, TO. 
Taylor. Richard, 28, 39, 55. 
Tent carried off by wind, 45. 
Tent pitched, 50. 
Thomas. James, 100, 105. 
Thomas. Lewis, 116, 117, 118. 
Thomas. Nathan, 120. 
Thornton s, 69. 
Timberless tracts of land, 50. 
Titled patron, 12. 



Index. 



Tomahawk blaze, 43. 
Tomahawk claims, 43. 
4 Toner Collection," 77. 
Toulston Hall, 24. 
Town creek, 63. 
Treeless prairies, 50. 
Through a narrow pass, 50. 
Trout run, 90. 
Trustees of Alexandria, 53. 
Turkeys become wild, 38. 

Undressed for bed, 26. 
" Upper Tract," Va., 32. 
Urton. John, 126, 128, 129. 

" Vacant," a surveyor s term, 

43, 46. 

Valley of Virginia, 36. 
Vance. Alexander, 124, 129. 
Vance. John, 123, 124, 125, 

126, 128. 

Van Meter. Henry, 36, 49, 50. 
Van Meter. Isaac, 25, 37. 
Van Meter. John, 25, 36, 37. 
Van Meter s Marsh, 37. 
Van Meters, sketch of, 36. 
Vermin in beds, 26. 
Verrion. Admiral, 53. 
Verses, 54, 70, 71. 
Vestall. William, 114. 
Vincy. Andrew, 71, 84, 85, 103. 

Walker, Major, of Nassau, 68. 
Walker. Samuel, 117. 
Walker s pioneers in valley, 38. 
Walnut bottoms, 31. 
Walnut trees, 47. 
Walpool grant, 65. 
Walpool. Thomas, 65. 
Wappotomaka or South branch, 
32, 40. 



War dance, 34. 
Warden. James, 103, 106. 
Warden. William, 87, 104. 
Warm spring, 29. 
Washington and the Ohio Co., 

31. 
Washington cottage at Bath, 

30. 

Washington county, Md., 30. 
Washington, his reading, 67, 

73. 

Washington licensed a sur 
veyor, 78. 

Washington made Major, 26. 
Washington. Anne, 54. 
Washington, Augustine, Jr., 

and Ohio Co., 33, 34. 
Washington. Augustine, Sr., 

52, 53. 

Washington. Mrs. Aug., 66. 
Washington. Col., 18. 
Washington, George, begins 

life, 15. 
Washington, George," S C C.", 

78. 
Washington, George, to leave 

school, 10. 
Washington. Capt. Henry, 67, 

75. 

Washington, Col. John, the em 
igrant, 52. 
Washington. John Augustine, 

116. 
Washington. Lawrence, 64, 68, 

116, 118, 119, 121. 
Washington. Major Lawrence, 

10, 12. 
Washington, Lawrence, at Bath, 

30. 
Washington, Lawrence, and 

Ohio Co., 31. 



1 44 



Index. 



Washington, Lawrence, half- 1 
brother to George, 52. 

Washington, Lawrence, mar 
ried, 53. 

Washington, Lawrence, por 
trait of, 54. 

Washington. Mary, 9. 

Washington. Richard, 67. 

Washington. Sarah, 54. 

Washington. Warner, 69. 

Washington s diaries, 18, 20. 

Washington s purchases at sale, 
16, 17. 

Watts. John, 74. 

Wearing apparel, 69. 

Welton. John, 94. 

Welton. Henry, 94. 

West Indies, 54, 68. 

West, William, of Fairfax Co., 
52. 

Westmoreland Co., 68. 

Wharton. Samuel, 65. 

White oak trees, 41, 55. 

White pine trees, 80, 84. 

White walnut trees, 48, 81, 93, 
94. 

White wood tree, 45, 46. 

Wiggans. Thomas, 72, 109, 111. 

Wiggans. William, 109, 111. 

Wigs worn, 70. 

Wild cherry trees, 85. 

Wild meadows, 50. 

Wild turkey eggs taken to 
Turkey, 38. 



Wild turkey, its name, 38. 

Wild turkey killed, 49. 

Wild turkey, native of Amer 
ica, 38. 

Wild turkeys, 41, 45, 49. 

William and Mary College, 
78. 

Williams Academy, 11, 66. 

Williams gap, 52. 

Williams. Thomas, 110, 111. 

Williamsburg, Ya., 67. 

Willis, Francis, Jr., 18. 

Will s creek, 31, 65. 

Wilton. John, 71. 

Winchester, Frederick Co., 19, 
22, 25, 52, 80, 96. 

Wine and rum punch, 28. 

Wood. Daniel, 106. 

Wood. David, 106, 107. 

Wood. James, 25, 26. 

Wood. Jeremiah, 127. 

Woodfin. John, 94, 114. 

Woodfin. Samuel, 94. 

Woodsman, 26. 

Woodstock, Ya., 45, 46, 47. 

Worthington. Robert, 116, 118, 
119, 120, 121, 130. 

Wolf. Widow, 47, 48. 

Wolf s fort, 47. 

Wolf s marsh, 47. 

Wright s ferry, 30. 

Wirthlington Church, Eng 
land, 19. 



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